The considerable utility of ultrasensitive microwave radar in atmospheric studies can now be augmented by lidar and acoustic echo-sounding techniques. The current and potential capabilities, and limitations, of these methods of remote atmospheric probing are discussed and the techniques are compared. From this analysis the conclusion emerges that a remote sensing facility consisting of these instruments probing the same volume of the atmosphere can measure many of the meteorologically significant parameters necessary to increase our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the clear lower atmosphere, and provide the spatial and temporal density of measurements necessary for weather forecasting.
V. E. Derr and C. G. Little, "A Comparison of Remote Sensing of the Clear Atmosphere by Optical, Radio, and Acoustic Radar Techniques," Appl. Opt. 9, 1976-1992 (1970)