An oceanographic optical instrument has been designed and constructed to record the radiance distribution of natural radiant energy underwater. The instrument contains two cameras placed back-to-back, each equipped with a fisheye (180° field of view) lens and is fabricated so that film can be exposed by remote control. The instrument is designed to operate at depths up to 100 m. Values of underwater radiance can be obtained from the exposed films by means of photographic photometry. Radiance distributions obtained in natural waters will provide basic information needed for the study and solution of several problems in optical oceanography. First, the radiance distribution is an important input for the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the sea. From the distribution of radiance in the natural light fields in the ocean, many of the important optical properties which relate to radiative transfer processes in the ocean can be calculated. Second, from these optical properties one can compute the magnitude of the deterioration of image contrast of submerged objects and thus furnish information for the study and solution of underwater visibility problems, which include problems in underwater television and photography. Finally, since radiant energy is critical to the beginning of the marine food chain through photosynthetic plankton, radiance distribution measurements will provide information of fundamental importance to the problem of primary productivity in natural waters.
R. C. Smith, R. W. Austin, and J. E. Tyler, "An Oceanographic Radiance Distribution Camera System," Appl. Opt. 9, 2015-2022 (1970)