OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: James C. Wyant
  • Vol. 46, Iss. 6 — Feb. 20, 2007
  • pp: 959–977
« Show journal navigation

Particle formation from pulsed laser irradiation of soot aggregates studied with a scanning mobility particle sizer, a transmission electron microscope, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope

Hope A. Michelsen, Alexei V. Tivanski, Mary K. Gilles, Laura H. van Poppel, Mark A. Dansson, and Peter R. Buseck  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 6, pp. 959-977 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.000959


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (3381 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We investigated the physical and chemical changes induced in soot aggregates exposed to laser radiation using a scanning mobility particle sizer, a transmission electron microscope, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope to perform near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Laser-induced nanoparticle production was observed at fluences above 0.12 J / cm 2 at 532   nm and 0.22 J / cm 2 at 1064   nm . Our results indicate that new particle formationproceeds via (1) vaporization of small carbon clusters by thermal or photolytic mechanisms, followed by homogeneous nucleation, (2) heterogeneous nucleation of vaporized carbon clusters onto material ablated from primary particles, or (3) bothprocesses.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Combustion-generated soot particles are composed of small (1550  nm diameter[1

1. J. Lahaye and G. Prado, “Morphology and internal structure of soot and carbon blacks,” in Particulate Carbon: Formation during Combustion, D. C. Siegla and G. W. Smith, eds. (Plenum, 1981), pp. 33–35.

, 2

2. Ü. Ö. Köylü and G. M. Faeth, “Structure and overfire soot in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames at long residence times,” Combust. Flame 89, 140–156 (1992). [CrossRef]

, 3

3. H. X. Chen and R. A. Dobbins, “Crystallogenesis of particles formed in hydrocarbon combustion,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 159, 109–128 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. B. Hu, B. Yang, and Ü. Ö. Köylü, “Soot measurements at the axis of an ethylene∕air nonpremixed turbulent jet flame,” Combust. Flame 134, 93–106 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Can soot primary particle size be determined using laser-induced incandescence?,” Combust. Flame 116, 291–296 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. L. H. van Poppel, H. Friedrich, J. Spinsby, S. H. Chung, J. H. Seinfeld, and P. R. Buseck, “Electron tomography of nanoparticle clusters and implications for atmospheric lifetimes and radiative forcing of soot,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L24811 (2005). [CrossRef]

]) carbon spheres held together by covalent bonds to form branched-chain aggregates of varied sizes.[3

3. H. X. Chen and R. A. Dobbins, “Crystallogenesis of particles formed in hydrocarbon combustion,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 159, 109–128 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. J. Lahaye and F. Ehrburger-Dolle, “Mechanisms of carbon black formation: correlation with the morphology of aggregates,” Carbon 32, 1319–1324 (1994). [CrossRef]

] These small carbonaceous spheres are commonly called “primary particles,” a term that in this context refers to the elementary building blocks of the aggregate without implications regarding origin, and the aggregates are referred to as “mature soot particles” to distinguish them from the smaller (5  nm diameter) nascent particles that are initially formed. The complex structure of soot aggregates, coupled with their typical small sizes (<1μm), makes soot detection by optical methods challenging.[8

8. T. L. Farias, M. G. Carvalho, Ü. Ö. Köylü, and G. M. Faeth, “Computational evaluation of approximate Rayleigh–Debye–Gans∕fractal-aggregate theory for the absorption and scattering properties of soot,” J. Heat Transfer 117, 152–159 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. T. L. Farias, Ü. Ö. Köylü, and M. G. Carvalho, “Range of validity of the Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory for optics of fractal aggregates,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6560–6567 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10. Ü. Ö. Köylü, “Quantitative analysis of in situ optical diagnostics for inferring particle∕aggregate parameters in flames: Implications for soot surface growth and total emissivity,” Combust. Flame 109, 488–500 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. J. C. Ku and K.-H. Shim, “A comparison of solutions for light scattering and absorption by aggregated and arbitrarily-shaped particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 201–220 (1992). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. J. C. Ku and K.-H. Shim, “Optical diagnostics and radiative properties of simulated soot aggregates,” J. Heat Transfer 113, 953–958 (1991). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. Ü. Ö. Köylü and G. M. Faeth, “Fractal and projected structure properties of soot aggregates,” Combust. Flame 100, 621–633 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35, 648–687 (2001).

] The work presented here focuses on identifying laser-induced changes in aggregate morphology and fine structure, which could have an impact on implementation of laser-based soot detection schemes.

One technique that may be particularly susceptible to laser-induced particle modification is laser-induced incandescence (LII). LII is a widely used optical technique for soot detection.[15

15. R. J. Santoro and C. R. Shaddix, “Laser-induced incandescence,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 252–286.

] It involves measuring the light emitted by particles heated by laser irradiation to temperatures (2500–4500 K) at which they incandesce (i.e., emit observable radiation). The signal magnitude is correlated with the particle volume fraction, whereas the signal decay rate is assumed to be associated with the primary particle size.[15

15. R. J. Santoro and C. R. Shaddix, “Laser-induced incandescence,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 252–286.

, 16

16. J. A. Pinson, D. L. Mitchell, and R. J. Santoro, “Quantitative, planar soot measurements in a D. I. diesel engine using laser-induced incandescence and light scattering,” in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1993), paper 932650.

, 17

17. J. A. Pinson, T. Ni, and T. A. Litzinger, “Quantitative imaging study of the effects of intake air temperature on soot evaluation in an optically-accessible D. I. diesel engine,” in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1994), paper 942044.

, 18

18. R. L. Vander Wal and D. L. Dietrich, “Laser-induced incandescence applied to droplet combustion,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1103–1107 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. T. Ni, J. A. Pinson, S. Gupta, and R. J. Santoro, “Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction by the use of laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7083–7091 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 20

20. B. Mewes and J. M. Seitzman, “Soot volume fraction and particle size measurements with laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Opt. 36, 709–717 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 21

21. P. Roth and A. V. Filippov, “In situ ultrafine particle sizing by a combination of pulsed laser heatup and particle thermal emission,” J. Aerosol Sci. 27, 95–104 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, “Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence,” Combust. Flame 97, 384–392 (1994). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, “Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 107, 418–452 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. A. V. Filippov, M. W. Markus, and P. Roth, “In situ characterization of ultrafine particles by laser-induced incandescence: sizing and particle structure determination,” J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 71–87 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 25

25. K. Inagaki, S. Takasu, and K. Nakakita, “In-cylinder quantitative soot concentration measurement by laser-induced incandescence,” in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1999), paper 1999-1901-0508.

, 26

26. S. Schraml, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous measurement of soot mass concentration and primary particle size in the exhaust of a DI diesel engine by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence,” in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1994), paper 1999-1901-0146.

, 27

27. D. J. Bryce, N. Ladommatos, and H. Zhao, “Quantitative investigation of soot distribution by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5012–5022 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 28

28. C. Allouis, A. D'Alessio, C. Noviello, and F. Beretta, “Time resolved laser induced incandescence for soot and cenospheres measurements in oil flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 153, 51–63 (2000). [CrossRef]

] Accurate measurements of particle volume fraction and size are hindered by limitations in the understanding of the physical mechanisms that determine signal magnitudes and decay rates at operating temperatures and the paucity of information about the properties of soot at such temperatures. The laser fluences typically used and temperatures attained by the particles may be sufficient to lead to significant changes in particle morphology and fine structure, which could have a substantial effect on the LII signal.

To minimize uncertainties in LII particle sizing associated with particle vaporization, many recent studies have relied on low laser fluences for primary particle size measurements. An acceptable upper limit on laser fluence, however, is generally not clearly stated (if known). Often it is assumed that fluences 0.2J/cm2 are acceptable.[29

29. T. Schittkowski, B. Mewes, and D. Brüggemann, “Laser-induced incandescence and Raman measurements in sooting methane and ethylene flames,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2063–2071 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 30

30. R. Starke, B. Kock, and P. Roth, “Nano-particle sizing by laser-induced incandescence (LII) in a shock wave reactor,” Shock Waves 12, 351–360 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 31

31. A. Boiarciuc, F. Foucher, and C. Mounaïm-Rousselle, “Soot volume fraction and primary particle size estimate by means of the simultaneous two-color-time-resolved and 2D laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 413–421 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 32

32. F. Liu, M. Yang, F. A. Hill, D. R. Snelling, and G. J. Smallwood, “Influence of polydisperse distributions of both primary particle and aggregate size on soot temperature in low-fluence LII,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 383–395 (2006). [CrossRef]

] Other recent studies have used laser fluences 0.4J/cm2 for primary particle sizing.[33

33. S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, “Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII),” Combust. Flame 120, 439–450 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 34

34. B. Axelsson, R. Collin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Laser-induced incandescence for soot particle size and volume fraction measurements using on-line extinction calibration,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 367–372 (2001).

, 35

35. C. Allouis, F. Beretta, and A. D'Alessio, “Sizing soot and micronic carbonaceous particle in spray flames base on time resolved LII,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27, 455–463 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 36

36. T. Lehre, B. Jungfleisch, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, “Size distributions of nanoscaled particles and gas temperatures from time-resolved laser-induced incandescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2021–2030 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] For LII volume fraction measurements, laser fluences above 0.2J/cm2 are routinely used. LII signals increase in magnitude with laser fluence until they reach a threshold at 0.2J/cm2, above which they often become nearly independent of fluence but maintain a dependence on soot volume fraction. Using laser fluences above this threshold value thus allows volume fraction measurements to be made with fewer complications from laser power fluctuations and laser attenuation through scattering or absorbing media.

In this study, we investigated the physical and chemical changes induced in soot aggregates exposed to laser radiation at 532 and 1064  nm over a wide range of laser fluences using results from a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) to perform near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Extensive new particle production was observed to occur at fluences above 0.12J/cm2 at 532  nm and above 0.22J/cm2 at 1064  nm. Our results indicate that new particle formationproceeds via (1) vaporization of small carbon clusters by thermal or photolytic mechanisms, followed by homogeneous nucleation, (2) heterogeneous nucleation of vaporized carbon clusters onto material ablated from primary particles, or (3) bothprocesses. Soot aggregates appear not to break apart into primary particles during laser heating, aprocess we will henceforth refer to as “disaggregation.” Our results also show that particles retain their original morphology, fine structure, and chemical structure with laser irradiation at fluences below the threshold for new particle formation.

2. Previous Results

A more recent study by Beyer and Greenhalgh[37

37. V. Beyer and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser induced incandescence under high vacuum conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 455–467 (2006). [CrossRef]

] provides evidence that soot particles disaggregate under vacuum when irradiated at 532  nm. When monitoring time-resolved LII, they observed an increase in the LII signal microseconds after the laser pulse. They attributed this signal increase to previously shielded primary particles embedded in the aggregate, which become exposed during disaggregation. Aggregates or more loosely bound agglomerates also appeared to explode into smaller particles when imaged onto a gated intensified camera.

Other studies indicate that soot particles do not readily disaggregate into primary particles at 1064 nm. Vander Wal and co-workers[38

38. R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, “Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes,” Carbon 37, 231–239 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 39

39. R. L. Vander Wal, C. Y. Choi, and K. O. Lee, “The effects of rapid heating of soot: implications when using laser-induced incandescence for soot diagnostics,” Combust. Flame 102, 200–204 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 40

40. R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 115–123 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 41

41. R. L. Vander Wal and K. A. Jensen, “Laser-induced incandescence: excitation intensity,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1607–1616 (1998). [CrossRef]

] presented TEM images of soot aggregates subjected to 1064  nm laser pulses. Soot samples were either first collected on copper grids and then exposed to laser radiation[38

38. R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, “Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes,” Carbon 37, 231–239 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 39

39. R. L. Vander Wal, C. Y. Choi, and K. O. Lee, “The effects of rapid heating of soot: implications when using laser-induced incandescence for soot diagnostics,” Combust. Flame 102, 200–204 (1995). [CrossRef]

] or irradiated in the flame prior to collection on the grids.[40

40. R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 115–123 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 41

41. R. L. Vander Wal and K. A. Jensen, “Laser-induced incandescence: excitation intensity,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1607–1616 (1998). [CrossRef]

] Substantial changes in particle fine structure were observed. At intermediate fluences (0.30.6J/cm2), mass appeared to be lost primarily from the centers of the primary particles, leading to formation of interconnected shell-like spheres. At higher fluences (0.8J/cm2), significant mass loss from the surfaces of the particles occurred, resulting in partial disappearance of primary particle structure. Neither individual primary particles nor their fragments were observed on the TEM grids, however, suggesting that either mass was lost predominantly via sublimation of carbon clusters, or that the primary particles removed from the aggregates defied collection efforts or escaped from the TEM grids. These results are consistent with recent observations from Kock et al.[42

42. B. F. Kock, Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Duisburg-Essen, 2006).

] who used an SMPS to measure aggregate size distributions before and after irradiation at 1064 nm. They did not observe a primary particle mode in the size distributions of particles irradiated at fluences between 0.1 and 0.6J/cm2.

Dasch[43

43. C. J. Dasch, “Continuous-wave probe laser investigation of laser vaporization of small soot particles in a flame,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2209–2215 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] demonstrated that the scattering and absorption by soot decreased during laser heating at 532  nm and fluences greater than 0.2J/cm2, indicating a reduction in the aggregate particle size. According to model calculations that solved the energy and mass balance equations for laser heating of soot, this reduction in particle size could be explained by carbon sublimation. Dasch[43

43. C. J. Dasch, “Continuous-wave probe laser investigation of laser vaporization of small soot particles in a flame,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2209–2215 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] concluded that the observed changes in scattering and absorption during laser heating were more likely explained by a decrease in primary particle size by vaporization rather than by disaggregation of the aggregate into primary particles. Witze et al.[44

44. P. O. Witze, S. Hochgreb, D. Kayes, H. A. Michelsen, and C. R. Shaddix, “Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and laser elastic scattering measurements in a propane diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2443–2452 (2001). [CrossRef]

] and Yoder et al.[45

45. G. D. Yoder, P. K. Diwaker, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of soot particle vaporization effects during laser-induced incandescence with time-resolved light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4211–4219 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] similarly measured changes in 532  nm (Ref. [44

44. P. O. Witze, S. Hochgreb, D. Kayes, H. A. Michelsen, and C. R. Shaddix, “Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and laser elastic scattering measurements in a propane diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2443–2452 (2001). [CrossRef]

]) and 1064  nm (Ref. [45

45. G. D. Yoder, P. K. Diwaker, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of soot particle vaporization effects during laser-induced incandescence with time-resolved light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4211–4219 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]) laser light elastically scattered from the particles as a result of laser heating. Both groups observed significant decreases in laser scatter at fluences above 0.2J/cm2 and speculated that the decrease in scatter resulted from particle-size reduction caused by vaporization. They concluded that this size reduction is insignificant below 0.2J/cm2. Witze et al.[44

44. P. O. Witze, S. Hochgreb, D. Kayes, H. A. Michelsen, and C. R. Shaddix, “Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and laser elastic scattering measurements in a propane diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2443–2452 (2001). [CrossRef]

] confirmed their results with simultaneous extinction measurements. Krüger et al.[46

46. V. Krüger, C. Wahl, R. Hadef, K. P. Geigle, W. Stricker, and M. Aigner, “Comparison of laser-induced incandescence method with scanning mobility particle sizer technique: the influence of probe sampling and laser heating on soot particle size distribution,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1477–1486 (2005). [CrossRef]

] irradiated a sample of soot at 532  nm and observed a distortion in the size distribution measured with an SMPS at a laser fluence of 0.12J/cm2. They postulated that this laser-induced reduction in the electric mobility size of particles at the larger end of the distribution could be attributable to carbon vaporization or some other unknown mechanism. They did not observe enhanced volume fractions of smaller diameter particles.

The results of Stipe et al.[51

51. C. B. Stipe, J. H. Choi, D. Lucas, C. P. Koshland, and R. F. Sawyer, “Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 6, 467–477 (2004). [CrossRef]

] are consistent with studies of laser interactions with bulk graphite. When irradiated with a UV laser under vacuum, graphite produces small ionic and neutral clusters. The main products are C, C2, and C3 and their cationic counterparts.[52

52. F. Kokai and Y. Koga, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometric studies on the plume dynamics of laser ablation of graphite,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 121, 387–391 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 53

53. F. Kokai, “Optical emission spectra from laser ablation of graphite at 266 nm and 1064 nm under a magnetic field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3504–3509 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 54

54. R. W. Dreyfus, R. Kelly, and R. E. Walkup, “Laser-induced fluorescence study of laser sputtering of graphite,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 23, 557–561 (1987). [CrossRef]

, 55

55. J. J. Gaumet, A. Wakisaka, Y. Shimizu, and Y. Tamori, “Energetics for carbon clusters produced directly by laser vaporization of graphite: dependence on laser power and wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 89, 1667–1670 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 56

56. D. J. Krajnovich, “Laser sputtering of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite at 248 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 726–743 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 57

57. H. C. Ong and R. P. H. Chang, “Effect of laser intensity on the properties of carbon plumes and deposited films,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 13213–13220 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 58

58. Y. Yamagata, A. Sharma, and J. Narayan, “Comparative study of pulsed laser ablated plasma plumes from single crystal graphite and amorphous carbon targets. Part 1. Optical emission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6861–6867 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 59

59. P. T. Murray and D. T. Peeler, “Dynamics of graphite photoablation: kinetic energy of the precursors to diamond-like carbon,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 69, 225–230 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 60

60. M.-A. Bratescu, Y. Sakai, D. Yamaoka, Y. Suda, and H. Sugawara, “Electron and excited particle densities in a carbon ablation plume,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197198,257–262 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 61

61. T. Shinozaki, T. Ooie, T. Yano, J. P. Zhao, Z. Y. Chen, and M. Yoneda, “Laser-induced optical emission of carbon plume by excimer and Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197198,263–267 (2002). [CrossRef]

] Small clusters initially produced are thought to form larger clusters via thermolecular reactions,[62

62. F. Kokai, K. Takahashi, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, “Emission imaging spectroscopic and shadowgraphic studies on the growth dynamics of graphitic carbon particles synthesized by CO2 laser vaporization,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8686–8693 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 63

63. T. Moriwaki, M. Kobayashi, M. Osaka, M. Ohara, H. Shiromaru, and Y. Achiba, “Dual pathway of carbon cluster formation in the laser vaporization,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8927–8932 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 64

64. K. Sasaki, T. Wakabayashi, S. Matsui, and K. Kadota, “Distributions of C2 and C3 radical densities in laser-ablation carbon plumes measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4033–4039 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 65

65. K. Shibagaki, T. Kawashima, K. Sasaki, and K. Kadota, “Formation of positive and negative carbon cluster ions in the initial phase of laser ablation in vacuum,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4959–4963 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and at higher pressures larger clusters and nanoparticles have been observed.[66

66. M. Ullmann, S. K. Friedlander, and A. Schmidt-Ott, “Nanoparticle formation by laser ablation,” J. Nanopart. Res. 4, 499–509 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 67

67. Z. Márton, L. Landstrom, and P. Heszler, “Early stage of the material removal during ArF laser ablation of graphite,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 579–585 (2004). [CrossRef]

] The fine structure of the graphite substrate also appears to have an impact on the size of clusters produced. Evidence suggests that single-crystal (i.e., well-ordered) graphite targets produce larger clusters than do amorphous carbon targets.[58

58. Y. Yamagata, A. Sharma, and J. Narayan, “Comparative study of pulsed laser ablated plasma plumes from single crystal graphite and amorphous carbon targets. Part 1. Optical emission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6861–6867 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 68

68. R. M. Mayo, J. W. Newman, Y. Yamagata, A. Sharma, and J. Narayan, “Comparative study of pulsed laser ablated plasma plumes from single crystal graphite and amorphous carbon targets: Part II. Electrostatic probe measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6868–6874 (2000). [CrossRef]

] With laser irradiation in the visible and IR, small clusters consisting of a few carbon atoms are produced,[53

53. F. Kokai, “Optical emission spectra from laser ablation of graphite at 266 nm and 1064 nm under a magnetic field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3504–3509 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 64

64. K. Sasaki, T. Wakabayashi, S. Matsui, and K. Kadota, “Distributions of C2 and C3 radical densities in laser-ablation carbon plumes measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4033–4039 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 65

65. K. Shibagaki, T. Kawashima, K. Sasaki, and K. Kadota, “Formation of positive and negative carbon cluster ions in the initial phase of laser ablation in vacuum,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4959–4963 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 69

69. H. Kamezaki, K. Tokunaga, S. Fukuda, N. Yoshida, and T. Muroga, “Pulse high heat flux experiment with laser beams on graphite,” J. Nucl. Mater. 179, 193–196 (1991). [CrossRef]

, 70

70. K. A. Lincoln and M. A. Covington, “Dynamic sampling of laser-induced vapor plumes by mass spectrometry,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 16, 191–208 (1975). [CrossRef]

, 71

71. T. Wakabayashi, T. Momose, and T. Shida, “Mass spectroscopic studies of laser ablated carbon clusters as studied by photoionization with 10.5 eV photons under high vacuum,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6260–6263 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 72

72. J. Berkowitz and W. A. Chupka, “Mass spectrometric study of vapor ejected from graphite and other solids by focused laser beams,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 2735–2736 (1964). [CrossRef]

, 73

73. P. Monchicourt, “Onset of carbon cluster formation inferred from light emission in a laser-induced expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1430–1433 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 74

74. K. Sasaki, T. Wakasaki, and K. Kadota, “Observation of continuum optical emission from laser ablation carbon plumes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197198,197–201 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 75

75. E. A. Rohlfing, “Optical emission studies of atomic, molecular, and particulate carbon produced from a laser vaporization cluster source,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6103–6112 (1988). [CrossRef]

, 76

76. M. Anselment, R. S. Smith, E. Daykin, and L. F. Dimauro, “Optical emission studies on graphite in a laser∕vaporization supersonic jet cluster source,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 444–449 (1987). [CrossRef]

, 77

77. E. A. Rohlfing, D. M. Cox, and A. Kaldor, “Production and characterization of supersonic carbon cluster beams,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3322–3330 (1984). [CrossRef]

, 78

78. M. Jeunehomme and R. P. Schwenker, “Focused laser-beam experiment and the oscillator strength of the Swan system,” J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2406–2408 (1965). [CrossRef]

, 79

79. A. M. Keszler and L. Nemes, “Time averaged emission spectra of Nd:YAG laser induced carbon plasmas,” J. Mol. Struct. 695696,211–218 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 80

80. J. A. Howe, “Observations on the maser-induced graphite jet,” J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1362–1363 (1963). [CrossRef]

, 81

81. L. Nemes, A. M. Keszler, J. O. Hornkolh, and C. G. Parigger, “Laser-induced carbon plasma emission spectroscopic measurements on solid targets and in gas-phase optical breakdown,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3661–3667 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 82

82. S. S. Harilal, R. C. Isaac, C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical emission studies of C2 species in laser-produced plasma from carbon,” J. Phys. D 30, 1703–1709 (1997). [CrossRef]

] but larger clusters (with as many as 100 carbon atoms) are also commonly observed in these wavelength regions under vacuum.[55

55. J. J. Gaumet, A. Wakisaka, Y. Shimizu, and Y. Tamori, “Energetics for carbon clusters produced directly by laser vaporization of graphite: dependence on laser power and wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 89, 1667–1670 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 65

65. K. Shibagaki, T. Kawashima, K. Sasaki, and K. Kadota, “Formation of positive and negative carbon cluster ions in the initial phase of laser ablation in vacuum,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4959–4963 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 71

71. T. Wakabayashi, T. Momose, and T. Shida, “Mass spectroscopic studies of laser ablated carbon clusters as studied by photoionization with 10.5 eV photons under high vacuum,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6260–6263 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 72

72. J. Berkowitz and W. A. Chupka, “Mass spectrometric study of vapor ejected from graphite and other solids by focused laser beams,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 2735–2736 (1964). [CrossRef]

, 83

83. A. O'Keefe, M. M. Ross, and A. P. Baronavski, “Production of large carbon cluster ions by laser vaporization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 130, 17–19 (1986). [CrossRef]

] At these wavelengths large clusters, fullerenes, and nanoparticles can be formed at higher pressures[62

62. F. Kokai, K. Takahashi, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, “Emission imaging spectroscopic and shadowgraphic studies on the growth dynamics of graphitic carbon particles synthesized by CO2 laser vaporization,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8686–8693 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 63

63. T. Moriwaki, M. Kobayashi, M. Osaka, M. Ohara, H. Shiromaru, and Y. Achiba, “Dual pathway of carbon cluster formation in the laser vaporization,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8927–8932 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 74

74. K. Sasaki, T. Wakasaki, and K. Kadota, “Observation of continuum optical emission from laser ablation carbon plumes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197198,197–201 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 84

84. G. F. Lorusso, V. Capozzi, P. Milani, A. Minafra, and D. Lojacono, “UV spectra of graphite microparticles produced by laser vaporization,” Solid State Commun. 85, 729–734 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 85

85. F. Kokai, K. Takahashi, D. Kasuya, A. Nakayama, Y. Koga, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, “Laser vaporization synthesisof polyhedral graphite,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 69–71 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 86

86. S. M. Kimbrell and E. S. Yeung, “Real-time particle size measurements in laser-generated plumes by Mie scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 1248–1251 (1989). [CrossRef]

, 87

87. S. Iijima, T. Wakabayashi, and Y. Achiba, “Structures of carbon soot prepared by laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 5839–5843 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 88

88. T. Ishigaki, S. Suzuki, H. Kataura, W. Krätschmer, and Y. Achiba, “Characterization of fullerenes and carbon nanoparticles generated with a laser-furnace technique,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 121–124 (2000). [CrossRef]

] or when expanded in a buffer gas into a vacuum.[75

75. E. A. Rohlfing, “Optical emission studies of atomic, molecular, and particulate carbon produced from a laser vaporization cluster source,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6103–6112 (1988). [CrossRef]

, 76

76. M. Anselment, R. S. Smith, E. Daykin, and L. F. Dimauro, “Optical emission studies on graphite in a laser∕vaporization supersonic jet cluster source,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 444–449 (1987). [CrossRef]

, 77

77. E. A. Rohlfing, D. M. Cox, and A. Kaldor, “Production and characterization of supersonic carbon cluster beams,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3322–3330 (1984). [CrossRef]

, 89

89. E. A. Rohlfing and D. W. Chandler, “Two-color pyrometric imaging of laser-heated carbon particles in a supersonic flow,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 44–50 (1990). [CrossRef]

, 90

90. H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O'Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E. Smalley, “C60: buckminsterfullerene,” Nature 318, 162–163 (1985). [CrossRef]

, 91

91. D. M. Cox, K. C. Reichmann, and A. Kaldor, “Carbon clusters revisited: the ‘special’ behavior of C60 and large carbon clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1588–1597 (1988). [CrossRef]

, 92

92. M. Pellarin, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, and M. Broyer, “Coating and polymerization of C60 with carbon: a gas phase photodissociation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 3088–3097 (2002). [CrossRef]

] Cluster growth rates via termolecular reactions should increase with pressure, thereby leading to small (60100  nm diameter) particle formation at high pressure.[62

62. F. Kokai, K. Takahashi, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, “Emission imaging spectroscopic and shadowgraphic studies on the growth dynamics of graphitic carbon particles synthesized by CO2 laser vaporization,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8686–8693 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 66

66. M. Ullmann, S. K. Friedlander, and A. Schmidt-Ott, “Nanoparticle formation by laser ablation,” J. Nanopart. Res. 4, 499–509 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 75

75. E. A. Rohlfing, “Optical emission studies of atomic, molecular, and particulate carbon produced from a laser vaporization cluster source,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6103–6112 (1988). [CrossRef]

, 80

80. J. A. Howe, “Observations on the maser-induced graphite jet,” J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1362–1363 (1963). [CrossRef]

, 85

85. F. Kokai, K. Takahashi, D. Kasuya, A. Nakayama, Y. Koga, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, “Laser vaporization synthesisof polyhedral graphite,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 69–71 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 86

86. S. M. Kimbrell and E. S. Yeung, “Real-time particle size measurements in laser-generated plumes by Mie scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 1248–1251 (1989). [CrossRef]

, 88

88. T. Ishigaki, S. Suzuki, H. Kataura, W. Krätschmer, and Y. Achiba, “Characterization of fullerenes and carbon nanoparticles generated with a laser-furnace technique,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 121–124 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 89

89. E. A. Rohlfing and D. W. Chandler, “Two-color pyrometric imaging of laser-heated carbon particles in a supersonic flow,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 44–50 (1990). [CrossRef]

, 93

93. S. Suzuki, H. Yamagachi, R. Sen, H. Kataura, W. Krätschmer, and Y. Achiba, “Time and space evolution of carbon species generated with a laser furnace technique,” AIP Conf.Proc. 590, 51–54 (2001). [CrossRef]

]

In the present study, we focus on the effects on soot of laser irradiation at 532 and 1064  nm. In addition to making use of an SMPS to measure changes in electric-mobility size distributions following irradiation over a wide range of laser fluences, we use TEM and STXM images to study changes in soot morphology and fine structure and NEXAFS spectroscopy to study changes in chemical structure (carbon hybridization). The results from these studies collectively indicate that new particles produced during laser irradiation of soot are formed by nucleation of small carbon clusters generated by sublimation or photodesorption. Nucleationproceeds homogeneously and∕or heterogeneously onto larger fragments ablated by the laser. New particles appear not to be formed by disaggregation of soot aggregates into primary particles.

3. Methodology

3A. Particle Generation

The experimental apparatus, shown schematically in Fig. 1, included a coflow diffusion burner, an annular silica gel diffusion dryer (TSI Model 3062), an atmospheric pressure flow-tube reactor with temperature and humidity probes, a cell with windows for optical access, and a scanning mobility particle sizer (TSI Model 3936L10). The SMPS includes a differential mobility analyzer [(DMA) TSI Model 3085] and a condensation particle counter [(CPC), TSI, Model 3025A]. Soot particles were generated in the flame and cooled to ambient temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The combustion products were dried by passing through the diffusion dryer and introduced into the SMPS after being subjected to a single laser shot at 532 or 1064  nm in the optical cell. The particles were size segregated as a function of their electric-mobility diameter with the DMA and were either counted with the CPC or collected on TEM grids using an electrostatic aerosol sampler (TSI Model 6069). Alternatively the full flow was directed onto a TEM grid or Si3N 4 window for analysis using a STXM.

Soot was generated in an ethylene–air diffusion flame produced by a burner with a central fuel nozzle (0.5 cm in diameter) surrounded by a honeycomb structure for the coflow of air. The flow rates were maintained by mass flow controllers (MKS type 1479A for low flow and 1559A for high flow) in the range of 0.22–0.26 standard liters per minute (SLM) ethylene and 27.5 SLM air. The tip of the flame was cut with a cross flow of dry air at 65 SLM to prevent complete combustion of the particles in the flame. With the cross flow turned off, the visible flame height was 7  cm. The cross flow intersected the flame at 6.4  cm above the burner. A small fraction (0.5%) of the total gas flow was extracted into the diffusion dryer and sent to the optical cell, where it was irradiated with a single laser shot at either 532 or 1064  nm. Gas temperature (T=293±2  K) and relative humidity [(RH)=5%±2%] were monitored with a thermohygrometer (Oakton, Model EW-35612-00) inserted through a sidearm in the flow tube.

3B. Optical Setup

The optical section of the flow tube consisted of a six-way stainless-steel cross equipped with optical access windows and an SMPS sampling port. A collimated pulsed laser beam was directed into the cell through a quartz window (tilted at Brewster's angle to minimize scatter) perpendicularly to the aerosol flow. The particles were irradiated with either the fundamental (1064  nm) or second harmonic (532  nm) of an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser (Spectra-Physics Pro-230-10), which produced pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz and with a duration of 10 ns at 1064  nm and 7 ns at 532  nm. The center of the Gaussian beam was passed through a 3 mm diameter ceramic aperture, which was relay imaged to the detection region with a 1:1 positive telescope using two 1 m focal length lenses. This configuration provided a homogeneous tophat spatial profile 3 mm in diameter. The pulse energy was attenuated by use of a half-wave plate followed by two thin-film polarizers and was measured with a surface-absorbing thermal detector (Molectron Model PM10). The linear-flow velocity in the flow tube was adjusted to 6 cm∕s to ensure that particles were not subjected to multiple laser shots. The laser-beam diameter was smaller than the diameter of the aerosol flow tube, and at this flow velocity and with a 10 Hz laser repetition rate, only 10% of the aerosol volume was irradiated.

3C. Transmission Electron Microscope Imaging

For TEM analysis, soot samples were passed through an electrostatic classifier and collected on lacey-carbon film on TEM grids (Electron Microscopy Sciences, LC200-Cu) using an electrostatic aerosol sampler. This sampling configuration allowed soot aggregates to be collected on the grids following segregation by electric-mobility diameter. The optimal collection time was found to be 180 min at a flow rate of 0.3 SLM and a potential of 10 kV on the grid. The particles thus collected were imaged using a JEOL 2000FX electron microscope operated at a 200 kV accelerating voltage. Images were then analyzed to determine the fractal and geometric dimensions of soot aggregates. Particle geometric size was measured on digitized electron micrographs by fitting ellipses to the particle outlines and taking the average of the short and long axes of the best-fit ellipse as the particle diameter. A box-counting method [ImageJ 1.32j (Ref. [94

94. “Imageprocessing and analysis in Java,” http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/.

])] was used for the fractal analysis.

3D. NEXAFS Spectroscopy Using STXM

For NEXAFS analysis, soot samples were collected on TEM grids and Si3N 4 windows. Samples containing more and larger particles were required for NEXAFS analysis than for TEM imaging. For this reason, the DMA size filter and electrostatic aerosol sampler were not used for the NEXAFS samples; hence a direct comparison between the TEM and STXM samples is not possible. Laser-irradiated or nonirradiated particles were collected by continuously impinging aerosol flow onto the substrates at a flow rate of 0.4 SLM and collection time of 150 min.

Carbon K-edge NEXAFS spectra of soot particles were acquired using a STXM[95

95. A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission x-ray microscopes at the advanced light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 125–136 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] on beamlines 5.3.2 and 11.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source (Berkeley, California) in a 0.5  atm He-filled sample chamber. The majority of the experiments were performed at beamline 5.3.2, which has a bending magnet for an insertion device and produces horizontally polarized light in plane with the sample. For polarization-dependence measurements, a beamline with an elliptically polarized undulator insertion device (11.0.2) was used. For STXM measurements, the x-ray beam was focused with a zone plate onto the sample, and the transmitted radiation was detected. The spot size at the sample is determined by the width of the outermost zone of the zone plate, which was 35  nm for these experiments. Images were obtained by rastering the sample and collecting transmitted light as a function of sample position. Spectra at each image pixel were obtained from stacks, which are a collection of images recorded at increasing energies across the absorption edge. Carbon K-edge spectra were acquired from 278 to 320 eV with dwell times of 1–2 ms per pixel. Incident beam intensity I0 was measured through the sample-free region of the TEM grid. The logarithm of the intensity ratio between incident and transmitted beams (expressed as a function of energy) provided the NEXAFS spectrum in units of optical density at each image pixel. The NEXAFS spectra were obtained by averaging over regions of the particles.

On coated TEM grids (holey carbon, ultrathin carbon on holey-carbon support, silicon monoxide on Formvar, all from Ted Pella), particles were imaged in regions where the coating was perforated, allowing simultaneous measurement of the incident radiation and measurement of the coating in a region without soot. This holey-carbon spectrum was consistent with those measured from grids without soot and is readily distinguishable from soot in thickness, spectral intensities, and peak positions. For determination of the soot spectra, the holey-carbon region was used to measure the incident radiation. Spectra from each of the support films were examined and used in a similar manner. The soot particle spectra determined this way were similar for different TEM grid coatings.

Measured optical densities [(OD) or absorbance] typically ranged from 0.2 to 0.8; none were greater than 1. The energy was calibrated using the absorption bands of CO2 at 292.74 and 294.96 eV.[96

96. Y. Ma, C. T. Chen, G. Meigs, K. Randall, and F. Sette, “High-resolution K-shell photoabsorption measurements of simple molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 1848–1858 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] The linear pre-edge background was subtracted from each spectrum. This background arises from scattering due to species that are nonabsorbing at a particular energy and was typically 0.050  OD for both irradiated and nonirradiated soot particles. This small pre-edge absorption relative to the absorbance at higher energies (OD  0.5 at 320 eV) confirmed that the primary component of the particles is carbon.

4. Experimental Results

4A. Laser-Induced Size and Structure Changes

Figure 2 shows the measured electric-mobility size distribution of soot particles extracted from the flame (solid curve). This distribution is well described by a lognormal function, where the number concentration as a function of the natural logarithm of the particle diameter n(ln D) is given by[97

97. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 1998).

]
n(ln  D)=N2π ln  σ  exp{[ln(D/D0)]22ln2σ}.
(1)
This expression can be rewritten as a function of D according to[97

97. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 1998).

]
n(D)=N2πD  ln  σ  exp{[ln(D/D0)]22ln2σ}.
(2)
Fitting the distribution in Fig. 2 to Eq. (1) yields the following parameters (±one standard deviation): total number concentration N=2.50(±0.02)×106cm3, median mobility diameter D0=96.4(±0.4)  nm, mean mobility diameter (D=D0  exp[ln2σ/2]) (Ref. [97

97. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 1998).

]) of 112(±1)  nm, and geometric standard deviation σ=1.727(±0.008). Figure 2 also shows distributions of the average geometric diameter (given by an average of the maximum and minimum diameters for each particle) derived from 325 measurements from each of two TEM samples collected with the electrostatic sampler after size selection with the DMA. With the DMA set to collect particles with a mobility diameter of 100  nm, the median average geometric diameter was determined to be 115(±5)  nm, and for a mobility diameter of 110  nm, the median average geometric diameter was 142(±5)  nm. Figure 3(a) shows the corresponding TEM image, which demonstrates a typical branched-chain association of primary particles. The average particle fractal dimension is 1.7, which is also typical of mature soot generated in a flame.[2

2. Ü. Ö. Köylü and G. M. Faeth, “Structure and overfire soot in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames at long residence times,” Combust. Flame 89, 140–156 (1992). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. B. Hu, B. Yang, and Ü. Ö. Köylü, “Soot measurements at the axis of an ethylene∕air nonpremixed turbulent jet flame,” Combust. Flame 134, 93–106 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. Ü. Ö. Köylü and G. M. Faeth, “Fractal and projected structure properties of soot aggregates,” Combust. Flame 100, 621–633 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35, 648–687 (2001).

, 98

98. T. T. Charalampopoulos and H. Chang, “Agglomerate parameters and fractal dimension of soot using light scattering-effects of surface growth,” Combust. Flame 87, 89–99 (1991). [CrossRef]

, 99

99. Ü. Ö. Köylü, Y. C. Xing, and D. E. Rosner, “Fractal morphology analysis of combustion-generated aggregates using angular light scattering and electron microscope images,” Langmuir 11, 4848–4854 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 100

100. J.-S. Wu, S. S. Krishnan, and G. M. Faeth, “Refractive indices at visible wavelengths of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames,” J. Heat Transfer 119, 230–237 (1997). [CrossRef]

] In Fig. 3(b), the higher-magnification image of primary particles demonstrates fine structure composed of graphite crystallites with better-defined graphene (graphitic) sheets near the particle peripheries than at the centers, which is consistent with thereported fine structure of primary particles.[1

1. J. Lahaye and G. Prado, “Morphology and internal structure of soot and carbon blacks,” in Particulate Carbon: Formation during Combustion, D. C. Siegla and G. W. Smith, eds. (Plenum, 1981), pp. 33–35.

, 3

3. H. X. Chen and R. A. Dobbins, “Crystallogenesis of particles formed in hydrocarbon combustion,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 159, 109–128 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 101

101. W. S. Bacsa, W. A. de Heer, D. Ugarte, and A. Châtelain, “Raman spectroscopy of closed-shell carbon particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 211, 346–352 (1993). [CrossRef]

, 102

102. R. H. Hurt, G. P. Crawford, and H.-S. Shim, “Equilibrium nanostructure of primary soot particles,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 2539–2546 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 103

103. R. L. Vander Wal, “A TEM methodology for the study of soot particle structure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 126, 333–357 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 104

104. T. Ishiguro, Y. Takatori, and K. Akihama, “Microstructure of diesel soot particles probed by electron microscopy: first observation of inner core and outer shell,” Combust. Flame 108, 231–234 (1997). [CrossRef]

] The soot generated and studied in our experiments is similar in morphology and size to other flame-generated soot. Some of the aggregates appeared to have less well-defined primary particles with less turbostratic graphitic order apparent in the fine structure. These particles may have been less mature and may have originated from lower in the flame.

Figure 2 also shows the mobility-size distribution of soot particles irradiated with a single laser shot at 532  nm with a fluence of 0.7J/cm2 (dotted curve). This distribution demonstrates an additional mode of particle sizes with smaller mobility diameters; this second mode is not apparent in the distribution in Fig. 2 for the nonirradiated soot. Although there is no reason to expect that the size distributions of the new particles and the irradiated aggregate can be strictly described by a lognormal distribution, this type of probability distribution provides a good approximation for the small- and large-mode size distributions. The bimodal distribution shown in Fig. 2 is well described by a sum of lognormal distributions, i.e.,
n(ln  D)=n1(ln  D1)+n2(ln  D2),
(3)
where n1 represents the large-mode distribution, and n2 represents the small-mode distribution, given by Eq. (1). Fitting this function to the data yields N1=2.47(±0.09)×106cm3, D1=87.9(±2.0)  nm, and σ1=1.737(±0.037) for the large-mode distribution and N2=2.55(±0.07)×106cm3, D2=33.6(±0.1) nm, and σ2=1.271(±0.006) for the small-mode distribution. The total number concentration of the large-mode distribution did not change significantly upon irradiation under these experimental conditions, but the median particle size decreased, indicating a net loss of particle mass from the aggregates.

The size distribution of the aggregates thus demonstrates a small but measurable change upon irradiation. This distortion in the distribution appears as a depletion of larger particles. Figure 4 shows the distributions from Fig. 2 represented as volume concentrations, calculated as if the particles were spherical. The total particle volume (area under the curve) of the irradiated particles is 83% that of the nonirradiated particles, i.e., the large increase in small particles does not violate conservation of mass. Because the particles are actually not spherical, this exercise will not give an accurate representation of total mass loss, but it does suggest that the change in the large-mode distribution with irradiation is probably sufficient to account for the production of new particles.

The number of new particles produced for each aggregate FNP can be estimated according to
FNP=1X0n2(D)dD0n0(D)dD=1XN2N0,
(4)
where X(=0.1) is the volume fraction of irradiated aerosol, n0 is the number concentration of the nonirradiated sample, N0 is the corresponding total number concentration, n2 is the number concentration of the small-mode distribution, and N2 is the corresponding total number concentration. Although only 10% of the sampled aerosol volume was subjected to laser radiation, the total number concentration of new particles was 1–2 times that of the original particles. A distribution of aggregates with an average size of 100  nm produces approximately 10–20 new particles (with a median mobility diameter in the range of 1934  nm) per irradiated aggregate with single-shot excitation at 532  nm and 0.7J/cm2.

Figure 6 shows representative TEM images of particles from the small mode produced by the laser at 1064  nm and 1J/cm2. Figure 6(a) presents an image of small irregularly shaped particles attached to a section of the lacey-carbon substrate. These particles appear to consist predominantly of carbon material with little or no long-range order. This material may be amorphous carbon, which is a network of carbon atoms with some short-range order (on a 1  nm length scale) but little or no long-range order exhibiting a mixture of sp2 and sp3 hybridization.[105

105. M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, and P. C. Eklund, Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (Academic, 1996).

, 106

106. J. Robertson, “Amorphous carbon,” Adv. Phys. 35, 317–374 (1986). [CrossRef]

, 107

107. R. Gago, I. Jiménez, and J. M. Albella, “Detecting with x-ray absorption spectroscopy the modifications of the bonding structure of graphitic carbon by amorphisation, hydrogenation and nitrogenation,” Surf. Sci. 482485,530–536 (2001). [CrossRef]

, 108

108. R. Gago, M. Vinnichenko, H. U. Jäger, A. Y. Belov, I. Jiménez, N. Huang, H. Sun, and M. F. Maitz, “Evolution of sp2 networks with substrate temperature in amorphous carbon films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 014120 (2005). [CrossRef]

] In addition, there appear to be isolated portions of the particles that form hollow layered carbon rings, as shown in the higher-magnification image in Fig. 6(b) (marked with an arrow). Similar results are obtained when the particles are irradiated at 532  nm at high fluences, as shown in Fig. 6(c).

To elucidate the chemical structure (carbon-bond hybridization and functional groups) of these particles, single-energy STXM images and NEXAFS spectra were collected. NEXAFS spectral features arise from transitions from a core electron to an excited state and provide information about chemical hybridization and bonding. Spectra from the carbon 1s electron lie in the energy region of 285350  eV. Transitions from C  1sπ* lie in the range of 285–291 eV. Aromatic compounds exhibit a strong peak at 285–286 eV arising from the C  1sπ* transition of unsaturated C═C bonds. Additional transitions from functionalized aromatic groups, such as carbonyl groups, lie in the range of 286–288 eV and may overlap with the C  1sσ* transitions of C―H or CH2 which begin at 287  eV. Peaks arising from transitions to σ* are usually broader than the π* peaks and are superimposed on the photoionization continuum.

Representative STXM images of nonirradiated soot particles and particles irradiated at 532  nm and 0.8J/cm2 are shown in Fig. 7. Figure 7(a) shows an agglomerate of soot aggregates. Such agglomerates likely formed in situ during the samplingprocess. The irradiated particles [Fig. 7(b)] appear to be more compact, thicker, and denser. Such particles were not observed in the nonirradiated or low-fluence samples. Although only 10% of the sample was estimated to be irradiated, particles similar to those shown in Fig. 7(a) were not observed for samples irradiated at high fluences The flow impinging on the substrate thus included both small- and large-mode particles from the irradiated distribution; because an electrostatic classifier was not used to collect the particles, sampling in this flow likely favored collection of the larger mode aggregates. The thickness of each sample was calculated from the atomic scattering factors[109

109. B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fuikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection −E = 100–2000 eV, Z = 1–94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982). [CrossRef]

] assuming a density of 1.8g/cm3. Thicknesses were typically 25  nm for the nonirradiated and low-fluence samples, whereas the laser-irradiated particles were uniform in thickness and were typically 85  nm thick.

Figure 8 shows representative normalized spectra from a nonirradiated sample and from a sample irradiated at 532  nm with a fluence of 0.8J/cm2. Measurements were made on ten nonirradiated samples and eight samples irradiated at this wavelength and fluence. Nonirradiated soot aggregates have a spectrum (Fig. 8, dotted line) similar to graphite, with a strong contribution from an sp2 component.[107

107. R. Gago, I. Jiménez, and J. M. Albella, “Detecting with x-ray absorption spectroscopy the modifications of the bonding structure of graphitic carbon by amorphisation, hydrogenation and nitrogenation,” Surf. Sci. 482485,530–536 (2001). [CrossRef]

, 108

108. R. Gago, M. Vinnichenko, H. U. Jäger, A. Y. Belov, I. Jiménez, N. Huang, H. Sun, and M. F. Maitz, “Evolution of sp2 networks with substrate temperature in amorphous carbon films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 014120 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 110

110. R. A. Rosenberg, P. J. Love, and V. Rehn, “Polarization-dependent C(K) near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure of graphite,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 4034–4037 (1986). [CrossRef]

] For comparison, the magic-angle spectrum of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) extracted from Lenardi et al.[111

111. C. Lenardi, M. Marino, E. Barborini, P. Piseri, and P. Milani, “Evaluation of hydrogen chemisorption in nanostructured carbon films by near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 441–447 (2005). [CrossRef]

] is shown in Fig. 8 (dashed curve). The graphite spectrum exhibits a strong peak at 285.3  eV, which is attributed to the 1sπ* transition of aromatic carbon, and a transition at 292 eV, which corresponds to a 1sσ* carbon transition with enhancement from a sharp exciton transition at 291.7 eV.[110

110. R. A. Rosenberg, P. J. Love, and V. Rehn, “Polarization-dependent C(K) near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure of graphite,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 4034–4037 (1986). [CrossRef]

, 112

112. R. Ahuja, P. A. Brühwiler, J. M. Wills, B. Johansson, N. Mårtensson, and O. Eriksson, “Theoretical and experimental study of the graphite 1s x-ray absorption edges,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 14396–14404 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 113

113. R. F. Willis, B. Fitton, and G. S. Painter, “Secondary-electron emission spectroscopy and the observation of high-energy excited states in graphite: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 1926–1937 (1974). [CrossRef]

, 114

114. F. L. Coffman, R. Cao, P. A. Pianetta, S. Kapoor, M. Kelly, and L. J. Terminello, “Near-edge x-ray absorption of carbon materials for determining bond hybridization in mixed sp2∕sp3 bonded materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 568–570 (1996). [CrossRef]

] The exciton resonances have long lifetimes and as a result are very narrow.[115

115. J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer, 1996).

]

The NEXAFS spectrum of nonirradiated soot particles (dotted curve) shows absorption features similar to those of HOPG. As noted above, the strong absorptions in the π* (285.3 eV) and σ* (292.8 eV) regions point to the dominance of graphitelike sp 2 carbon. The linewidths of both π* and σ* transitions are broader than those of HOPG, however, indicating additional π* (and σ*) resonances in the region between 286 and 290 eV. These differences between the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and soot spectra are attributable to contributions from noncarbonaceous moieties known to be part of combustion-generated particles.[3

3. H. X. Chen and R. A. Dobbins, “Crystallogenesis of particles formed in hydrocarbon combustion,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 159, 109–128 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 116

116. M. B. Fernandes, J. O. Skjemstad, B. B. Johnson, J. D. Wells, and P. Brooks, “Characterization of carbonaceous combustion residues: I. Morphological, elemental and spectroscopic features,” Chemosphere 51, 785–795 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 117

117. M. B. Fernandes and P. Brooks, “Characterization of carbonaceous combustion residues: II. Nonpolar organic compounds,” Chemosphere 53, 447–458 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] Resonances from C═O (287.4 eV), C―H (288.7 eV), and C―OH (290 eV)[115

115. J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer, 1996).

, 118

118. G. D. Cody, H. Ade, S. Wirick, G. D. Mitchell, and A. Davis, “Determination of chemical-structural changes in vitrinite accompanying luminescence alteration using C-NEXAFS analysis,” Org. Geochem. 28, 441–455 (1998). [CrossRef]

] can account for the additional absorption in the 286–290 eV region.

Particles irradiated with 0.8J/cm2 at 532  nm (Fig. 8, solid curve) have a distinctly different spectrum from either HOPG (magic-angle spectrum) or the nonirradiated sample. The strength of the 1sπ* absorption is reduced, but the material exhibits a strong exciton at 291.7 eV. The appearance of the exciton in the spectrum of laser-irradiated particles could indicate the presence of some short-range order, which could be attributable to formation of annealed structures, such as those shown in Figs. 6(b) and 6(c). Such short-range order (on a length scale of 1  nm) is also consistent with amorphous carbon, which may have small regions of clustering of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon atoms.[105

105. M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, and P. C. Eklund, Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (Academic, 1996).

, 106

106. J. Robertson, “Amorphous carbon,” Adv. Phys. 35, 317–374 (1986). [CrossRef]

, 107

107. R. Gago, I. Jiménez, and J. M. Albella, “Detecting with x-ray absorption spectroscopy the modifications of the bonding structure of graphitic carbon by amorphisation, hydrogenation and nitrogenation,” Surf. Sci. 482485,530–536 (2001). [CrossRef]

, 108

108. R. Gago, M. Vinnichenko, H. U. Jäger, A. Y. Belov, I. Jiménez, N. Huang, H. Sun, and M. F. Maitz, “Evolution of sp2 networks with substrate temperature in amorphous carbon films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 014120 (2005). [CrossRef]

] Hence, the absorption features suggest a less graphitic structure (relative to nonirradiated aggregates) but, nevertheless, demonstrate short-range order, as indicated by sharp exciton absorption.

The relative amount of graphitic sp2 carbon in irradiated and nonirradiated soot samples can be estimated from the ratio of the area under the 1sπ* peak at 285.3eV (A C═C) to the overall area of the spectrum in the region between 280 and 310eV (A280310) according to[111

111. C. Lenardi, M. Marino, E. Barborini, P. Piseri, and P. Milani, “Evaluation of hydrogen chemisorption in nanostructured carbon films by near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 441–447 (2005). [CrossRef]

]
fsp2=AC═CA280310.
(5)
Following Lenardi et al.,[111

111. C. Lenardi, M. Marino, E. Barborini, P. Piseri, and P. Milani, “Evaluation of hydrogen chemisorption in nanostructured carbon films by near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 441–447 (2005). [CrossRef]

] fsp2 was referenced to the corresponding ratio for the HOPG (magic-angle spectrum) sample, assuming a 100% abundance of sp2 carbon in HOPG:
fsp2soot=AC═CA280310A280310HOPGAC═CHOPG.
(6)
The area under the spectrum A 280–310 was obtained by numerical integration of the experimental data, whereas the area under the π* peak AC═C was calculated by fitting the 1sπ* transition to a Gaussian function,[115

115. J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer, 1996).

] i.e.,
Iπ=H0  exp1/2(EP0)2(Γ/c)2,
(7)
and integrating Iπ. In Eq. (7), H0 is the height of the Gaussian peak, E is the photon energy, P0 is the position of the peak (285.3eV), Γ is the full width at half maximum, and c is a constant c=2(ln   4)1/2.

From Eq. (6), the average fraction of sp2-hybridized carbon was estimated to be 72% for the nonirradiated soot particles and 21% for the particles irradiated at 532  nm with a fluence of 0.8J/cm2. The estimated uncertainty is ±5%. This latter value is consistent with the composition of amorphous carbon films deposited at room temperature.[108

108. R. Gago, M. Vinnichenko, H. U. Jäger, A. Y. Belov, I. Jiménez, N. Huang, H. Sun, and M. F. Maitz, “Evolution of sp2 networks with substrate temperature in amorphous carbon films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 014120 (2005). [CrossRef]

] These results suggest significant changes in the carbon bonding in irradiated samples. The significant differences in particle morphology and spectra observed between these two samples lead us to speculate that the irradiated samples predominantly consist of newly formed nanoparticles.

For the nonirradiated samples, spectra were averaged over a region of the sample; hence long-range order, if any, would be averaged out in the measured spectrum. Although no polarization dependence was anticipated, analogous measurements on the nonirradiated samples yielded values of 0.71 (vertical), 0.74 (horizontal), and 0.67 (circular). This variation indicates the uncertainty of the measurement rather than significant changes in peak intensities.

Although we are unable to definitively identify a mechanism for the differences observed in the NEXAFS spectra between nonirradiated particles and those irradiated at 0.8J/cm2, the significantly altered spectra suggest formation of newly nucleated nanoparticles. This conclusion is consistent with the TEM images of irradiated particles (Fig. 6), which demonstrate isolated regions of carbon with relatively large graphene sheets together with regions where such sheets are not evident. We speculate that the loss of structure observed in the TEM images could be the source of carbon for the newly nucleated particles observed in the STXM samples.

4B. Fluence Dependence of New Particle Formation

The aerosol mobility-size distributions were measured as a function of laser fluence at 532 and 1064  nm. Figure 9 demonstrates the effect of laser fluence on the number concentration and size of small particles produced during laser irradiation at 532  nm. The solid curves in Fig. 9 represent the best fits to the particle-size distributions of a sum of two log-normal distributions, i.e., Eq. (3). The parameters derived from this analysis are given in Table 1. The full set of experimental data for 532  nm irradiation is plotted in Fig. 10 in the form of a 3D graph of the measured particle-size distributions as a function of mobility diameter (X axis) and laser fluence (Y axis). The data show that small particles increase in size and number density with increasing fluence and reach a plateau in size and number concentration at higher values. Analogous results were observed for 1064  nm excitation, although the plateau regions in particle number concentration and size were not reached.

The median sizes of the small- and large-mode distributions are shown as a function of fluence in Fig. 11(a). The small-mode distribution increases with fluence at values above 0.12J/cm2 for 532  nm irradiation and 0.22J/cm2 for 1064  nm irradiation. Particles with a median size below 8 nm were not observed at either wavelength. At 532 nm, the particle size becomes independent of fluence above 0.5J/cm2. Such a plateau was not observed at 1064  nm at the fluences used in this study. The median particle size of the large-mode distributions starts to decrease with fluence at the value where new particle formation becomes observable. The median size of this mode continues to decrease at fluences below the intermediate values of 0.3J/cm2 for 532  nm irradiation and 0.55J/cm2 for 1064  nm irradiation and increases with fluence at higher values. The behavior with fluence of the large-mode particles is mirrored by the total number concentration of these particles [shown in Fig. 11(b)]. At fluences above the threshold for new particle formation, the total volume of large-mode particles decreases with increasing fluence.

Figures 12 and 13 show TEM images of large-mode aggregates irradiated at 1064 and 532  nm at intermediate fluences. Aggregates irradiated at 1064  nm and 0.24J/cm2 (Fig. 12) look similar to the nonirradiated particles (Fig. 3). The aggregate morphology does not change when irradiated at this wavelength and fluence, as demonstrated in Fig. 12(a), and most of the particles appear to have the same polycrystalline graphitic fine structure, as shown in Fig. 12(b). Aggregates irradiated at 532  nm and 0.3J/cm2 (Fig. 13), however, demonstrate features similar to those observed in aggregates irradiated at 1064  nm and 1J/cm2 (Fig. 5). More long-range order is apparent in the fine structure, which demonstrates layered carbon rings or folded ribbons. The nanoparticles produced under these conditions (Fig. 14) are similar in structure to those produced at higher fluences (e.g., Fig. 6). Figure 14 shows representative nanoparticles produced by laser irradiation at 1064 and 532  nm at intermediate laser fluences. In many of the particles generated, less long-range order is apparent than in the nonirradiated particles. In the case of 1064  nm irradiation at 0.24J/cm2 [Fig. 14(a)], small sections of graphitic structure are visible (circled). With 532  nm irradiation at 0.3J/cm2 some of the new particles have no apparent long-range order [Fig. 14(b)] whereas other particles demonstrate structures with layered carbon planes, rings, or folded ribbons [Fig. 14(c)]. The particles generated at 532  nm are smaller and more elongated than those formed at similar fluences with 1064  nm irradiation, and the morphology is similar to that of particles formed with high-fluence irradiation (Fig. 6). At higher fluences, however, fewer particles have regions of long-range order, and particles such as those shown in Fig. 14(c) were not seen at higher fluences.

NEXAFS spectra were recorded for soot particles exposed to 532  nm radiation at laser fluences of 0.01, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.8J/cm2. At fluences 0.05J/cm2, STXM images show no changes in particle morphology, and NEXAFS spectra recorded over 15 different regions from these samples demonstrate no chemical bonding changes with fluence, as shown in Fig. 15. At fluences 0.2J/cm2, distinct changes in the number of particles and particle morphology are observed. As noted above, the large branched agglomerates, such as those shown in Fig. 7(a), are no longer present. At a laser fluence of 0.2J/cm2 and greater, the primary particle structure of aggregates is not discernible in the samples collected for the STXM measurements. Rather, a few individual denser particles (submicrometer in size) are apparent [see Fig. 7(b)].

Fluence-dependent NEXAFS spectra indicate that a detectable change in the state of carbon hybridization in particles occurs when irradiated at laser fluences between 0.2 and 0.8J/cm2 at 532  nm. At 0.8J/cm2, this transition is characterized by an apparent decrease in graphitic sp 2-hybridized carbon.[105

105. M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, and P. C. Eklund, Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (Academic, 1996).

, 108

108. R. Gago, M. Vinnichenko, H. U. Jäger, A. Y. Belov, I. Jiménez, N. Huang, H. Sun, and M. F. Maitz, “Evolution of sp2 networks with substrate temperature in amorphous carbon films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 014120 (2005). [CrossRef]

] These changes are represented by the differences between the spectra shown in Fig. 15(a) and the spectrum shown in Fig. 15(c). Only two spectra were recorded for the sample illuminated at 0.2J/cm2, and both of these spectra looked like the curve presented in Fig. 15(b). These spectra also demonstrate an apparent decrease in graphitic sp2-hybridized carbon by a reduction in the peak at 285.3 eV. In this case, however, the aromatic carbon peak is shifted by 0.4 eV to a lower energy, which may indicate formation of fullerenic carbon. One striking difference between these spectra and those shown in Figs. 15(a) and 15(c) is the appearance of a strong peak at 288.7 eV in conjunction with a decrease in the graphitic carbon, indicating significant contributions from C―H. A single spectrum recorded with the sample irradiated at 0.8J/cm2 has similar features and is shown in Fig. 15(b). Although a detailed understanding of the mechanism for these spectral changes is beyond the scope of this paper, spectral changes observed in particles irradiated at fluences 0.2J/cm2 support the premise that soot particles are significantly altered by laser irradiation, which may result in the formation of newly nucleated nanoparticles.

4C. Effects of 532 versus 1064 nm Radiation on New Particle Formation

New particle formation was measured using the SMPS at 532 and 1064  nm. More new particle production occurred with the shorter wavelength. The number of new particles produced per aggregate is shown in Fig. 11(c) (left axis). As noted above, the onset of observable nanoparticle production (at which the concentration of small-mode particles is 1% of the original particle concentration) occurs at 0.12J/cm2 at 532  nm and at 0.22J/cm2 at 1064  nm. The yield of new particles is higher at 532  nm than at 1064  nm at all fluences above 0.12J/cm2. At 532  nm, the yield reaches a plateau at fluences greater than 0.5J/cm2; such a plateau was not observed at 1064 nm at the fluences used in this study. The yield of new particles is comparable for the two wavelengths at the highest fluences (>0.75J/cm2). This dependence on fluence is similar to the observations of Stipe et al.[51

51. C. B. Stipe, J. H. Choi, D. Lucas, C. P. Koshland, and R. F. Sawyer, “Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 6, 467–477 (2004). [CrossRef]

] at 193  nm. In their work, however, the onset of new particle production occurred at 0.07J/cm2, and small-mode particle growth became saturated at 0.17J/cm2. These fluences are substantially lower than the corresponding valuesreported here for longer wavelengths.

5. Discussion

The results of calculations of the fractional amount of volatilized carbon mass for 532  nm laser heating are shown in Fig. 11(c) (right axis). Calculations were performed using a model that solves the energy- and mass-balance equations to account for particle heating by laser absorption, annealing, and oxidation and cooling by conduction to the surrounding atmosphere, radiative emission, sublimation, and multiphoton photodesorption of carbon clusters C2 and C3. Particle-size reduction during sublimation, photodesorption, and oxidation is also calculated. The model is described in more detail elsewhere.[119

119. H. A. Michelsen, “Understanding and predicting the temporal response of laser-induced incandescence from carbonaceous particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7012–7045 (2003). [CrossRef]

]

The amount of volatilized carbon was integrated from 0 to 150 ns, at which point mass loss by sublimation and photodesorption has ceased. Although the model does not currently include laser excitation at wavelengths other than 532  nm, carbon volatilization is expected to be less efficient at 1064 than at 532  nm for two reasons: (1) the absorption coefficient is inversely correlated with wavelength and is thus much lower at 1064  nm, and (2) the efficiency of photodesorption is lower at 1064  nm, assuming a two-photon transition at 532  nm and a three- or four-photonprocess at 1064  nm. The calculated increase in mass loss with fluence at 532  nm is more gradual than the increase in the number of new particles. The model indicates an earlier onset of substantial mass loss and does not reach a plateau until 1.5J/cm2 when the particle has been completely vaporized. New particle production via nucleation will depend on condensation rates. A mechanism for nucleation is not included in the model, and the experimental and modeling results shown here are thus not directly comparable. Nevertheless, they indicate that vaporization of the particle could generate sufficient gas-phase carbon species to account for the observed new particle formation by recondensation at these fluences.

The larger aggregates do not appear to be effective sites for heterogeneous cluster nucleation, e.g., the large regions of disordered carbon in Fig. 6 are not apparent on the aggregate in Fig. 5. At all fluences above the threshold for new particle formation, the median size of the large-mode aggregates is smaller than that of the nonirradiated particles, as shown in Fig. 11(a). A possible explanation is that at such high fluences the particles become superheated, pressure and temperature gradients are established at the surface, and convective transport of carbon clusters away from the surface leads to a supersonic expansion.[119

119. H. A. Michelsen, “Understanding and predicting the temporal response of laser-induced incandescence from carbonaceous particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7012–7045 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 121

121. H. A. Michelsen, P. O. Witze, D. Kayes, and S. Hochgreb, “Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence of soot: the influence of experimental factors and microphysical mechanisms,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5577–5590 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] These pressure waves and large flux of carbon away from the surface hinder transport of clusters back to the surface and reduce the rate of cluster recondensation on the original aggregate. Figure 11(a) also shows a growth in the median diameter of the large-mode aggregates with fluence following a minimum at intermediate fluences, suggesting that some amount of recondensation may occur when the cluster concentration is very high. Caution should be used in drawing such conclusions from these data, however, because this behavior of the large-mode median size and the anticorrelated behavior of the number of large-mode particles may be an artifact of the fittingprocedure. Uncertainties in these parameters are more significant for the large mode, for which the distribution was truncated. In addition, if significant recondensation were occurring on large-mode aggregates, TEM images showing material with no long-range order coating the aggregates might be expected but was not observed.

Our conclusions are consistent with those of Dasch,[43

43. C. J. Dasch, “Continuous-wave probe laser investigation of laser vaporization of small soot particles in a flame,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2209–2215 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] Witze et al.,[44

44. P. O. Witze, S. Hochgreb, D. Kayes, H. A. Michelsen, and C. R. Shaddix, “Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and laser elastic scattering measurements in a propane diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2443–2452 (2001). [CrossRef]

] and Yoder et al.[45

45. G. D. Yoder, P. K. Diwaker, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of soot particle vaporization effects during laser-induced incandescence with time-resolved light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4211–4219 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] who measured changes in scattering and absorption cross sections during laser irradiation of soot and hypothesized that particle size reduction at fluences above 0.2J/cm2 occurred by vaporization of the particle. Our conclusions are also consistent with those of Vander Wal et al.[38

38. R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, “Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes,” Carbon 37, 231–239 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 39

39. R. L. Vander Wal, C. Y. Choi, and K. O. Lee, “The effects of rapid heating of soot: implications when using laser-induced incandescence for soot diagnostics,” Combust. Flame 102, 200–204 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 40

40. R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 115–123 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 41

41. R. L. Vander Wal and K. A. Jensen, “Laser-induced incandescence: excitation intensity,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1607–1616 (1998). [CrossRef]

] who deduced from TEM images of laser-irradiated soot that aggregates do not disaggregate into primary particles upon laser irradiation but at high fluences lose mass via vaporization of primary particles.

Our results suggest that complete disaggregation of the aggregate into primary particles followed by reaggregation does not occur. Such disaggregation and reaggregation would likely lead to significant changes in the electric-mobility aggregate size distribution, which we do not observe. In addition, the small-mode component does not have the same physical and chemical structures as the original primary particles and increases in size with laser fluence, suggesting that, if disaggregation and reaggregation took place, it would have to be accompanied by a mechanism such as vaporization and recondensation. Some fragmentation of large aggregates into sections larger than a primary particle may occur, however, which might explain the decrease in median size [Fig. 11(a)] accompanied by an increase in total number concentration [Fig. 11(b)] of the large-mode distribution at intermediate fluences. Thisprocess may be overwhelmed by the effects of vaporization at higher fluences. Our conclusions are thus inconsistent with those of Filippov et al.[24

24. A. V. Filippov, M. W. Markus, and P. Roth, “In situ characterization of ultrafine particles by laser-induced incandescence: sizing and particle structure determination,” J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 71–87 (1999). [CrossRef]

] who proposed that particles completely disaggregate during laser irradiation. The work of Beyer and Greenhalgh[37

37. V. Beyer and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser induced incandescence under high vacuum conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 455–467 (2006). [CrossRef]

] also suggested disaggregation of soot aggregates or agglomerates after laser heating; this work was performed under vacuum, however, and the particle dynamics could be strongly influenced by ambient pressure.

Our measurements of new particle formation are inconsistent with those of Kock et al.[42

42. B. F. Kock, Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Duisburg-Essen, 2006).

] who recorded particle electric-mobility size distributions of laser-irradiated soot and did not observe new particle formation. They used fluences in the range of 0.1–0.6 J/cm2 at 1064 nm, for which we measure significant nanoparticle generation. Krüger et al.[46

46. V. Krüger, C. Wahl, R. Hadef, K. P. Geigle, W. Stricker, and M. Aigner, “Comparison of laser-induced incandescence method with scanning mobility particle sizer technique: the influence of probe sampling and laser heating on soot particle size distribution,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1477–1486 (2005). [CrossRef]

] also did not observe new particle formation upon laser irradiation of soot in similar experiments, but their laser fluence (0.12J/cm2 at 532  nm) was approximately at our measured threshold for new particle generation, where our observations suggest that new particles are just starting to be observable with the SMPS. Vander Wal et al.[38

38. R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, “Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes,” Carbon 37, 231–239 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 39

39. R. L. Vander Wal, C. Y. Choi, and K. O. Lee, “The effects of rapid heating of soot: implications when using laser-induced incandescence for soot diagnostics,” Combust. Flame 102, 200–204 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 40

40. R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 115–123 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 41

41. R. L. Vander Wal and K. A. Jensen, “Laser-induced incandescence: excitation intensity,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1607–1616 (1998). [CrossRef]

] did not observe new nanoparticles in TEM images of particles that did show apparent mass loss via vaporization of primary particles at high fluences, but nanoparticles may not have been collected efficiently on their TEM grids.

6. Conclusions

We have demonstrated the formation of carbonaceous nanoparticles during pulsed laser irradiation of soot at 532 and 1064  nm. New particles are produced at fluences above 0.12J/cm2 at 532  nm and 0.22J/cm2 at 1064  nm (Fig. 11). The mean size and number density of these new particles, as measured by SMPS, increase with increasing fluence (Fig. 11). At high fluences (>0.3J/cm2 for 532  nm irradiation, >0.5 J/cm2 for 1064  nm irradiation) new particle formation is accompanied by a decrease in number concentration of large-mode aggregates [Fig. 11(b)]. At intermediate fluences an increase in large-mode aggregate number concentration is accompanied by a decrease in large-mode median size, which may indicate that some fraction of the large aggregates break apart into fragments larger than a primary particle. At higher fluences an increase in the large-mode median diameter and decrease in large-mode number concentration with fluence may indicate recondensation of volatile carbon on the aggregates at high carbon cluster concentrations.

NEXAFS spectra show that the nonirradiated particles are predominantly graphitic sp2-hybridized carbon and that particles irradiated at fluences above the threshold exhibit significant changes in this peak intensity (Fig. 8). In TEM images, small (30  nm diameter) particles produced by irradiation of soot consist of extended regions without any obvious long-range order and smaller isolated regions of carbon with significant long-range order (Figs. 6 and 14). These ordered regions contain small graphite crystallites or partially annealed carbon that forms small, layered carbon rings or ribbons. Large particles (100  nm diameter) irradiated at fluences above the threshold fluence consist of primary particles that appear to be similar in size and structure to the nonirradiated primary particles [Fig. 5(b)]. These large particles can also include primary particles with denser layered carbon rings [Fig. 5(c)], which may result from partial annealing. STXM images suggest that these irradiated aggregates are smaller and denser than the nonirradiated particles (Fig. 7).

Laser-induced vaporization of soot particles and the resulting new particle formation could have significant implications for implementation of LII incandescence for soot detection. For volume fraction measurements, LII is frequently performed at fluences above the threshold for new particle formation. These results demonstrate that fluences as low as 0.12J/cm2 at 532  nm could lead to nonnegligible mass loss of the irradiated particle and suggest that particle size measurements using LII and laser-based scattering and extinction measurements of soot particles should be confined to fluences well below this fluence. Morphology and fine structure do not appear to be strongly influenced by irradiation at fluences below the threshold value for new particle formation.

The work performed at Sandia was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000. We thank Michael Gershenzon for his considerable contributions to the paper, Matt Boisselle for technical support, Pete Witze for stimulating discussions, Daniel Strong for the rendition of the experimental setup in Fig. 1, and Laurence Garvie for helpful suggestions for improving this manuscript. The work at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was supported by the DOE, BES, the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and the Division of Materials Sciences under contract DE-AC03-76S00098. M. K. Gilles and A. V. Tivanski thank A. D. Kilcoyne and T. Tyliszczak for support at beamlines 5.3.2 and 11.0.2, respectively. M. K. Gilles and A. V. Tivanski acknowledge funding from the DOE, Office of Science, Atmospheric Science Program. We gratefully acknowledge the use of facilities within the Center for Solid State Science at Arizona State University (ASU). The work at ASU was funded by the National Science Foundation under grant ATM-0531926. The authors gratefully acknowledge the perceptive and insightful comments of the reviewer.

Table 1. Results of Fits to Particle-Size Distributions (Solid Curves in Fig. 9)

table-icon
View This Table
Fig. 1 Schematic of the soot flow tube.
Fig. 2 SMPS electric-mobility size distributions of nonirradiated soot (solid curve) and particles irradiated at 532  nm and 0.7J/cm2 (dotted curve). Burner flow rates were 0.24 SLM for ethylene, 27.5 SLM for the air coflow, and 65 SLM for the air cross flow (see text for further details). Symbols represent the average geometric diameters determined from 325 measurements on each of two TEM samples, one collected with the DMA set to a mobility size of 100  nm and the other collected at a mobility size of 110 nm.
Fig. 3 TEM images of nonirradiated soot particles. (a) Soot aggregate from a distribution with a mean geometric diameter of 110(±15)  nm and a mean electric-mobility diameter of 112(±1) nm. (b) Higher-magnification TEM image of the same particle.
Fig. 4 SMPS electric-mobility size distributions of irradiated and nonirradiated particles represented as particle volume distributions. The measured number concentrations (Fig. 2) were converted to volume assuming the particles to be spherical with diameters equivalent to the electric-mobility diameters. Particles were irradiated at 532  nm with a fluence of 0.7J/cm2.
Fig. 5 TEM images of a soot particle irradiated at 1064  nm with a fluence of 1J/cm2. The particle electric-mobility diameter was 100  nm. (a) Aggregate in this TEM image has a branched-chain morphology similar to that of the nonirradiated particles, despite changes in the particle fine structure (b). (b) Higher-magnification TEM image of a part of the same aggregate.
Fig. 6 TEM images of soot nanoparticles produced by laser irradiation. Particles were produced at (a) and (b) 1064  nm with a laser fluence of 1J/cm2 and (c) 532  nm with a laser fluence of 0.87J/cm2 and were collected at an electric-mobility diameter of 30  nm. (b) and (c) Higher-magnification TEM images of nanoparticles that appear to be predominantly composed of carbon with no apparent long-range order and that have isolated regions with some long-range order (arrows).
Fig. 7 Single-energy images of representative particles imaged by STXM at the carbon edge. (a) Nonirradiated soot imaged with a step size of 60  nm. The image size is 15×15μm. (b) Soot particle irradiated at 532  nm with a fluence of 0.8J/cm2 and imaged with a step size of 30  nm. The image size is 2×2μm.
Fig. 8 Representative carbon K-edge NEXAFS spectra of soot particles before (dotted curve) and after (solid curve) laser irradiation with a single laser pulse at 532  nm and a laser fluence of 0.8J/cm2. The spectrum of HOPG (dashed curve) from Lenardi et al. (Ref. [11]) is provided for comparison.
Fig. 9 Number concentration of electric mobility size distributions of nonirradiated soot particles (filled circles) and soot irradiated at 532  nm with fluences of 0.21J/cm2 (open circles), 0.33J/cm2 (squares), and 0.76J/cm2 (triangles). The distributions are plotted as n(ln D). Solid curves are the best fits to the data with a sum of two lognormal distributions, i.e., Eq. (3). The values of fitting parameters are listed in Table 1.
Fig. 10 Electric-mobility size distributions plotted as a function of laser fluence. Soot was irradiated at 532  nm and sampled with the SMPS. The contour line spacing is 2×106cm3.
Fig. 11 Fluence dependence of median size and number concentration of small- and large-mode distributions. Results are shown for 532  nm (circles) and 1064  nm (squares) irradiation. Fits of Eq. (3) to the distributions were used to derive (a) the median particle size (D) for each mode and (b) the total number concentration (N) for each mode. Large-mode results (open symbols) correspond to the right axis, and small-mode results (closed symbols) correspond to the left axis. (c) Equations (3) and (4) were used to calculate the average number of small particles produced per soot aggregate. The curve represents the calculated mass fraction of carbon volatilized into small molecular clusters during 532  nm laser irradiation. Symbols correspond to the left axis; curves correspond to the right axis.
Fig. 12 TEM images of a soot particle irradiated at 1064  nm with a fluence of 0.24J/cm2. The particle electric-mobility diameter was 100  nm. (a) TEM image of an aggregate with a branched-chain morphology and fine structure similar to that of the nonirradiated particles. (b) Higher-magnification TEM image of a part of the same aggregate.
Fig. 13 TEM images of a soot particle irradiated at 532  nm with a fluence of 0.3J/cm2. The particle electric-mobility diameter was 100  nm. (a) TEM image of an aggregate with a branched-chain morphology similar to that of the nonirradiated particles. (b) Higher-magnification TEM image of a part of the same aggregate.
Fig. 14 TEM images of small particles produced by laser irradiation of soot. (a) Higher-magnification TEM image of particles produced at 1064  nm with a fluence of 0.24J/cm2 and collected at a mobility diameter of 10  nm. The circle highlights an isolated region of turbostratic graphitic structure. (b) and (c) Higher-magnification TEM images of particles produced at 532  nm with a fluence of 0.3J/cm2 and collected at a mobility diameter of 28  nm.
Fig. 15 Average carbon K-edge NEXAFS spectra of soot particles (a) before (top curve) and after laser irradiation with a single laser pulse at 532  nm and laser fluences of (a) 0.01J/cm2, (a) 0.05J/cm2, (b) 0.2J/cm2, and (b) and (c) 0.80J/cm2, as indicated. The curves have been normalized and offset from one another for clarity. Vertical dotted lines indicate energy levels for the 1s–π* transition of aromatic carbon (285.5 eV), 1s–σ* carbon transition (292.8  eV), and the exciton peak (291.7 eV).
1.

J. Lahaye and G. Prado, “Morphology and internal structure of soot and carbon blacks,” in Particulate Carbon: Formation during Combustion, D. C. Siegla and G. W. Smith, eds. (Plenum, 1981), pp. 33–35.

2.

Ü. Ö. Köylü and G. M. Faeth, “Structure and overfire soot in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames at long residence times,” Combust. Flame 89, 140–156 (1992). [CrossRef]

3.

H. X. Chen and R. A. Dobbins, “Crystallogenesis of particles formed in hydrocarbon combustion,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 159, 109–128 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

B. Hu, B. Yang, and Ü. Ö. Köylü, “Soot measurements at the axis of an ethylene∕air nonpremixed turbulent jet flame,” Combust. Flame 134, 93–106 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Can soot primary particle size be determined using laser-induced incandescence?,” Combust. Flame 116, 291–296 (1999). [CrossRef]

6.

L. H. van Poppel, H. Friedrich, J. Spinsby, S. H. Chung, J. H. Seinfeld, and P. R. Buseck, “Electron tomography of nanoparticle clusters and implications for atmospheric lifetimes and radiative forcing of soot,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L24811 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Lahaye and F. Ehrburger-Dolle, “Mechanisms of carbon black formation: correlation with the morphology of aggregates,” Carbon 32, 1319–1324 (1994). [CrossRef]

8.

T. L. Farias, M. G. Carvalho, Ü. Ö. Köylü, and G. M. Faeth, “Computational evaluation of approximate Rayleigh–Debye–Gans∕fractal-aggregate theory for the absorption and scattering properties of soot,” J. Heat Transfer 117, 152–159 (1995). [CrossRef]

9.

T. L. Farias, Ü. Ö. Köylü, and M. G. Carvalho, “Range of validity of the Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory for optics of fractal aggregates,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6560–6567 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

Ü. Ö. Köylü, “Quantitative analysis of in situ optical diagnostics for inferring particle∕aggregate parameters in flames: Implications for soot surface growth and total emissivity,” Combust. Flame 109, 488–500 (1996). [CrossRef]

11.

J. C. Ku and K.-H. Shim, “A comparison of solutions for light scattering and absorption by aggregated and arbitrarily-shaped particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 201–220 (1992). [CrossRef]

12.

J. C. Ku and K.-H. Shim, “Optical diagnostics and radiative properties of simulated soot aggregates,” J. Heat Transfer 113, 953–958 (1991). [CrossRef]

13.

Ü. Ö. Köylü and G. M. Faeth, “Fractal and projected structure properties of soot aggregates,” Combust. Flame 100, 621–633 (1995). [CrossRef]

14.

C. M. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35, 648–687 (2001).

15.

R. J. Santoro and C. R. Shaddix, “Laser-induced incandescence,” in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J. B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 252–286.

16.

J. A. Pinson, D. L. Mitchell, and R. J. Santoro, “Quantitative, planar soot measurements in a D. I. diesel engine using laser-induced incandescence and light scattering,” in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1993), paper 932650.

17.

J. A. Pinson, T. Ni, and T. A. Litzinger, “Quantitative imaging study of the effects of intake air temperature on soot evaluation in an optically-accessible D. I. diesel engine,” in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1994), paper 942044.

18.

R. L. Vander Wal and D. L. Dietrich, “Laser-induced incandescence applied to droplet combustion,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1103–1107 (1995). [CrossRef]

19.

T. Ni, J. A. Pinson, S. Gupta, and R. J. Santoro, “Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction by the use of laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7083–7091 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

B. Mewes and J. M. Seitzman, “Soot volume fraction and particle size measurements with laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Opt. 36, 709–717 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

P. Roth and A. V. Filippov, “In situ ultrafine particle sizing by a combination of pulsed laser heatup and particle thermal emission,” J. Aerosol Sci. 27, 95–104 (1996). [CrossRef]

22.

B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, “Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence,” Combust. Flame 97, 384–392 (1994). [CrossRef]

23.

C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, “Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 107, 418–452 (1996). [CrossRef]

24.

A. V. Filippov, M. W. Markus, and P. Roth, “In situ characterization of ultrafine particles by laser-induced incandescence: sizing and particle structure determination,” J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 71–87 (1999). [CrossRef]

25.

K. Inagaki, S. Takasu, and K. Nakakita, “In-cylinder quantitative soot concentration measurement by laser-induced incandescence,” in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1999), paper 1999-1901-0508.

26.

S. Schraml, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous measurement of soot mass concentration and primary particle size in the exhaust of a DI diesel engine by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence,” in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1994), paper 1999-1901-0146.

27.

D. J. Bryce, N. Ladommatos, and H. Zhao, “Quantitative investigation of soot distribution by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5012–5022 (2000). [CrossRef]

28.

C. Allouis, A. D'Alessio, C. Noviello, and F. Beretta, “Time resolved laser induced incandescence for soot and cenospheres measurements in oil flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 153, 51–63 (2000). [CrossRef]

29.

T. Schittkowski, B. Mewes, and D. Brüggemann, “Laser-induced incandescence and Raman measurements in sooting methane and ethylene flames,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2063–2071 (2002). [CrossRef]

30.

R. Starke, B. Kock, and P. Roth, “Nano-particle sizing by laser-induced incandescence (LII) in a shock wave reactor,” Shock Waves 12, 351–360 (2003). [CrossRef]

31.

A. Boiarciuc, F. Foucher, and C. Mounaïm-Rousselle, “Soot volume fraction and primary particle size estimate by means of the simultaneous two-color-time-resolved and 2D laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 413–421 (2006). [CrossRef]

32.

F. Liu, M. Yang, F. A. Hill, D. R. Snelling, and G. J. Smallwood, “Influence of polydisperse distributions of both primary particle and aggregate size on soot temperature in low-fluence LII,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 383–395 (2006). [CrossRef]

33.

S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, “Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII),” Combust. Flame 120, 439–450 (2000). [CrossRef]

34.

B. Axelsson, R. Collin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Laser-induced incandescence for soot particle size and volume fraction measurements using on-line extinction calibration,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 367–372 (2001).

35.

C. Allouis, F. Beretta, and A. D'Alessio, “Sizing soot and micronic carbonaceous particle in spray flames base on time resolved LII,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27, 455–463 (2003). [CrossRef]

36.

T. Lehre, B. Jungfleisch, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, “Size distributions of nanoscaled particles and gas temperatures from time-resolved laser-induced incandescence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2021–2030 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

V. Beyer and D. A. Greenhalgh, “Laser induced incandescence under high vacuum conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 83, 455–467 (2006). [CrossRef]

38.

R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, “Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes,” Carbon 37, 231–239 (1999). [CrossRef]

39.

R. L. Vander Wal, C. Y. Choi, and K. O. Lee, “The effects of rapid heating of soot: implications when using laser-induced incandescence for soot diagnostics,” Combust. Flame 102, 200–204 (1995). [CrossRef]

40.

R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, “Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 115–123 (1998). [CrossRef]

41.

R. L. Vander Wal and K. A. Jensen, “Laser-induced incandescence: excitation intensity,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1607–1616 (1998). [CrossRef]

42.

B. F. Kock, Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Duisburg-Essen, 2006).

43.

C. J. Dasch, “Continuous-wave probe laser investigation of laser vaporization of small soot particles in a flame,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2209–2215 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

44.

P. O. Witze, S. Hochgreb, D. Kayes, H. A. Michelsen, and C. R. Shaddix, “Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and laser elastic scattering measurements in a propane diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2443–2452 (2001). [CrossRef]

45.

G. D. Yoder, P. K. Diwaker, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of soot particle vaporization effects during laser-induced incandescence with time-resolved light scattering,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4211–4219 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

46.

V. Krüger, C. Wahl, R. Hadef, K. P. Geigle, W. Stricker, and M. Aigner, “Comparison of laser-induced incandescence method with scanning mobility particle sizer technique: the influence of probe sampling and laser heating on soot particle size distribution,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1477–1486 (2005). [CrossRef]

47.

C. J. Damm, D. Lucas, R. F. Sawyer, and C. P. Koshland, “Characterization of diesel particulate matter with excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2767–2774 (2002). [CrossRef]

48.

P.-E. Bengtsson and M. Aldén, “Soot-visualization strategies using laser techniques,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 51–59 (1995). [CrossRef]

49.

C. B. Stipe, B. S. Higgins, D. Lucas, C. P. Koshland, and R. F. Sawyer, “Soot detection using excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2759–2766 (2002). [CrossRef]

50.

J. Walewski, M. Rupinski, H. Bladh, Z. S. Li, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, “Soot visualisation by use of laser-induced soot vapourisation in combination with polarisation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 447–454 (2003). [CrossRef]

51.

C. B. Stipe, J. H. Choi, D. Lucas, C. P. Koshland, and R. F. Sawyer, “Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles,” J. Nanopart. Res. 6, 467–477 (2004). [CrossRef]

52.

F. Kokai and Y. Koga, “Time-of-flight mass spectrometric studies on the plume dynamics of laser ablation of graphite,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 121, 387–391 (1997). [CrossRef]

53.

F. Kokai, “Optical emission spectra from laser ablation of graphite at 266 nm and 1064 nm under a magnetic field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3504–3509 (1997). [CrossRef]

54.

R. W. Dreyfus, R. Kelly, and R. E. Walkup, “Laser-induced fluorescence study of laser sputtering of graphite,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 23, 557–561 (1987). [CrossRef]

55.

J. J. Gaumet, A. Wakisaka, Y. Shimizu, and Y. Tamori, “Energetics for carbon clusters produced directly by laser vaporization of graphite: dependence on laser power and wavelength,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 89, 1667–1670 (1993). [CrossRef]

56.

D. J. Krajnovich, “Laser sputtering of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite at 248 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 726–743 (1995). [CrossRef]

57.

H. C. Ong and R. P. H. Chang, “Effect of laser intensity on the properties of carbon plumes and deposited films,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 13213–13220 (1997). [CrossRef]

58.

Y. Yamagata, A. Sharma, and J. Narayan, “Comparative study of pulsed laser ablated plasma plumes from single crystal graphite and amorphous carbon targets. Part 1. Optical emission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6861–6867 (2000). [CrossRef]

59.

P. T. Murray and D. T. Peeler, “Dynamics of graphite photoablation: kinetic energy of the precursors to diamond-like carbon,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 69, 225–230 (1993). [CrossRef]

60.

M.-A. Bratescu, Y. Sakai, D. Yamaoka, Y. Suda, and H. Sugawara, “Electron and excited particle densities in a carbon ablation plume,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197198,257–262 (2002). [CrossRef]

61.

T. Shinozaki, T. Ooie, T. Yano, J. P. Zhao, Z. Y. Chen, and M. Yoneda, “Laser-induced optical emission of carbon plume by excimer and Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197198,263–267 (2002). [CrossRef]

62.

F. Kokai, K. Takahashi, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, “Emission imaging spectroscopic and shadowgraphic studies on the growth dynamics of graphitic carbon particles synthesized by CO2 laser vaporization,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8686–8693 (1999). [CrossRef]

63.

T. Moriwaki, M. Kobayashi, M. Osaka, M. Ohara, H. Shiromaru, and Y. Achiba, “Dual pathway of carbon cluster formation in the laser vaporization,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8927–8932 (1997). [CrossRef]

64.

K. Sasaki, T. Wakabayashi, S. Matsui, and K. Kadota, “Distributions of C2 and C3 radical densities in laser-ablation carbon plumes measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4033–4039 (2002). [CrossRef]

65.

K. Shibagaki, T. Kawashima, K. Sasaki, and K. Kadota, “Formation of positive and negative carbon cluster ions in the initial phase of laser ablation in vacuum,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4959–4963 (2000). [CrossRef]

66.

M. Ullmann, S. K. Friedlander, and A. Schmidt-Ott, “Nanoparticle formation by laser ablation,” J. Nanopart. Res. 4, 499–509 (2002). [CrossRef]

67.

Z. Márton, L. Landstrom, and P. Heszler, “Early stage of the material removal during ArF laser ablation of graphite,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 579–585 (2004). [CrossRef]

68.

R. M. Mayo, J. W. Newman, Y. Yamagata, A. Sharma, and J. Narayan, “Comparative study of pulsed laser ablated plasma plumes from single crystal graphite and amorphous carbon targets: Part II. Electrostatic probe measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6868–6874 (2000). [CrossRef]

69.

H. Kamezaki, K. Tokunaga, S. Fukuda, N. Yoshida, and T. Muroga, “Pulse high heat flux experiment with laser beams on graphite,” J. Nucl. Mater. 179, 193–196 (1991). [CrossRef]

70.

K. A. Lincoln and M. A. Covington, “Dynamic sampling of laser-induced vapor plumes by mass spectrometry,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 16, 191–208 (1975). [CrossRef]

71.

T. Wakabayashi, T. Momose, and T. Shida, “Mass spectroscopic studies of laser ablated carbon clusters as studied by photoionization with 10.5 eV photons under high vacuum,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6260–6263 (1999). [CrossRef]

72.

J. Berkowitz and W. A. Chupka, “Mass spectrometric study of vapor ejected from graphite and other solids by focused laser beams,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 2735–2736 (1964). [CrossRef]

73.

P. Monchicourt, “Onset of carbon cluster formation inferred from light emission in a laser-induced expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1430–1433 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

74.

K. Sasaki, T. Wakasaki, and K. Kadota, “Observation of continuum optical emission from laser ablation carbon plumes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197198,197–201 (2002). [CrossRef]

75.

E. A. Rohlfing, “Optical emission studies of atomic, molecular, and particulate carbon produced from a laser vaporization cluster source,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6103–6112 (1988). [CrossRef]

76.

M. Anselment, R. S. Smith, E. Daykin, and L. F. Dimauro, “Optical emission studies on graphite in a laser∕vaporization supersonic jet cluster source,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 444–449 (1987). [CrossRef]

77.

E. A. Rohlfing, D. M. Cox, and A. Kaldor, “Production and characterization of supersonic carbon cluster beams,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3322–3330 (1984). [CrossRef]

78.

M. Jeunehomme and R. P. Schwenker, “Focused laser-beam experiment and the oscillator strength of the Swan system,” J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2406–2408 (1965). [CrossRef]

79.

A. M. Keszler and L. Nemes, “Time averaged emission spectra of Nd:YAG laser induced carbon plasmas,” J. Mol. Struct. 695696,211–218 (2004). [CrossRef]

80.

J. A. Howe, “Observations on the maser-induced graphite jet,” J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1362–1363 (1963). [CrossRef]

81.

L. Nemes, A. M. Keszler, J. O. Hornkolh, and C. G. Parigger, “Laser-induced carbon plasma emission spectroscopic measurements on solid targets and in gas-phase optical breakdown,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3661–3667 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

82.

S. S. Harilal, R. C. Isaac, C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, “Optical emission studies of C2 species in laser-produced plasma from carbon,” J. Phys. D 30, 1703–1709 (1997). [CrossRef]

83.

A. O'Keefe, M. M. Ross, and A. P. Baronavski, “Production of large carbon cluster ions by laser vaporization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 130, 17–19 (1986). [CrossRef]

84.

G. F. Lorusso, V. Capozzi, P. Milani, A. Minafra, and D. Lojacono, “UV spectra of graphite microparticles produced by laser vaporization,” Solid State Commun. 85, 729–734 (1993). [CrossRef]

85.

F. Kokai, K. Takahashi, D. Kasuya, A. Nakayama, Y. Koga, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, “Laser vaporization synthesisof polyhedral graphite,” Appl. Phys. A 77, 69–71 (2003). [CrossRef]

86.

S. M. Kimbrell and E. S. Yeung, “Real-time particle size measurements in laser-generated plumes by Mie scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 1248–1251 (1989). [CrossRef]

87.

S. Iijima, T. Wakabayashi, and Y. Achiba, “Structures of carbon soot prepared by laser ablation,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 5839–5843 (1996). [CrossRef]

88.

T. Ishigaki, S. Suzuki, H. Kataura, W. Krätschmer, and Y. Achiba, “Characterization of fullerenes and carbon nanoparticles generated with a laser-furnace technique,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 121–124 (2000). [CrossRef]

89.

E. A. Rohlfing and D. W. Chandler, “Two-color pyrometric imaging of laser-heated carbon particles in a supersonic flow,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 44–50 (1990). [CrossRef]

90.

H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O'Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E. Smalley, “C60: buckminsterfullerene,” Nature 318, 162–163 (1985). [CrossRef]

91.

D. M. Cox, K. C. Reichmann, and A. Kaldor, “Carbon clusters revisited: the ‘special’ behavior of C60 and large carbon clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1588–1597 (1988). [CrossRef]

92.

M. Pellarin, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, and M. Broyer, “Coating and polymerization of C60 with carbon: a gas phase photodissociation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 117, 3088–3097 (2002). [CrossRef]

93.

S. Suzuki, H. Yamagachi, R. Sen, H. Kataura, W. Krätschmer, and Y. Achiba, “Time and space evolution of carbon species generated with a laser furnace technique,” AIP Conf.Proc. 590, 51–54 (2001). [CrossRef]

94.

“Imageprocessing and analysis in Java,” http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/.

95.

A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, “Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission x-ray microscopes at the advanced light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 125–136 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

96.

Y. Ma, C. T. Chen, G. Meigs, K. Randall, and F. Sette, “High-resolution K-shell photoabsorption measurements of simple molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 1848–1858 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

97.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 1998).

98.

T. T. Charalampopoulos and H. Chang, “Agglomerate parameters and fractal dimension of soot using light scattering-effects of surface growth,” Combust. Flame 87, 89–99 (1991). [CrossRef]

99.

Ü. Ö. Köylü, Y. C. Xing, and D. E. Rosner, “Fractal morphology analysis of combustion-generated aggregates using angular light scattering and electron microscope images,” Langmuir 11, 4848–4854 (1995). [CrossRef]

100.

J.-S. Wu, S. S. Krishnan, and G. M. Faeth, “Refractive indices at visible wavelengths of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames,” J. Heat Transfer 119, 230–237 (1997). [CrossRef]

101.

W. S. Bacsa, W. A. de Heer, D. Ugarte, and A. Châtelain, “Raman spectroscopy of closed-shell carbon particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 211, 346–352 (1993). [CrossRef]

102.

R. H. Hurt, G. P. Crawford, and H.-S. Shim, “Equilibrium nanostructure of primary soot particles,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 2539–2546 (2000). [CrossRef]

103.

R. L. Vander Wal, “A TEM methodology for the study of soot particle structure,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 126, 333–357 (1997). [CrossRef]

104.

T. Ishiguro, Y. Takatori, and K. Akihama, “Microstructure of diesel soot particles probed by electron microscopy: first observation of inner core and outer shell,” Combust. Flame 108, 231–234 (1997). [CrossRef]

105.

M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, and P. C. Eklund, Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (Academic, 1996).

106.

J. Robertson, “Amorphous carbon,” Adv. Phys. 35, 317–374 (1986). [CrossRef]

107.

R. Gago, I. Jiménez, and J. M. Albella, “Detecting with x-ray absorption spectroscopy the modifications of the bonding structure of graphitic carbon by amorphisation, hydrogenation and nitrogenation,” Surf. Sci. 482485,530–536 (2001). [CrossRef]

108.

R. Gago, M. Vinnichenko, H. U. Jäger, A. Y. Belov, I. Jiménez, N. Huang, H. Sun, and M. F. Maitz, “Evolution of sp2 networks with substrate temperature in amorphous carbon films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 014120 (2005). [CrossRef]

109.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fuikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection −E = 100–2000 eV, Z = 1–94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982). [CrossRef]

110.

R. A. Rosenberg, P. J. Love, and V. Rehn, “Polarization-dependent C(K) near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure of graphite,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 4034–4037 (1986). [CrossRef]

111.

C. Lenardi, M. Marino, E. Barborini, P. Piseri, and P. Milani, “Evaluation of hydrogen chemisorption in nanostructured carbon films by near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 441–447 (2005). [CrossRef]

112.

R. Ahuja, P. A. Brühwiler, J. M. Wills, B. Johansson, N. Mårtensson, and O. Eriksson, “Theoretical and experimental study of the graphite 1s x-ray absorption edges,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 14396–14404 (1996). [CrossRef]

113.

R. F. Willis, B. Fitton, and G. S. Painter, “Secondary-electron emission spectroscopy and the observation of high-energy excited states in graphite: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 1926–1937 (1974). [CrossRef]

114.

F. L. Coffman, R. Cao, P. A. Pianetta, S. Kapoor, M. Kelly, and L. J. Terminello, “Near-edge x-ray absorption of carbon materials for determining bond hybridization in mixed sp2∕sp3 bonded materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 568–570 (1996). [CrossRef]

115.

J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer, 1996).

116.

M. B. Fernandes, J. O. Skjemstad, B. B. Johnson, J. D. Wells, and P. Brooks, “Characterization of carbonaceous combustion residues: I. Morphological, elemental and spectroscopic features,” Chemosphere 51, 785–795 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

117.

M. B. Fernandes and P. Brooks, “Characterization of carbonaceous combustion residues: II. Nonpolar organic compounds,” Chemosphere 53, 447–458 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

118.

G. D. Cody, H. Ade, S. Wirick, G. D. Mitchell, and A. Davis, “Determination of chemical-structural changes in vitrinite accompanying luminescence alteration using C-NEXAFS analysis,” Org. Geochem. 28, 441–455 (1998). [CrossRef]

119.

H. A. Michelsen, “Understanding and predicting the temporal response of laser-induced incandescence from carbonaceous particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7012–7045 (2003). [CrossRef]

120.

Y. P. Yang, P. Xia, A. L. Junkin, and L. A. Bloomfield, “Direct ejection of clusters from nonmetallic solids during laser vaporization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1205–1208 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

121.

H. A. Michelsen, P. O. Witze, D. Kayes, and S. Hochgreb, “Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence of soot: the influence of experimental factors and microphysical mechanisms,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5577–5590 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.1740) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Combustion diagnostics
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(180.7460) Microscopy : X-ray microscopy
(350.3450) Other areas of optics : Laser-induced chemistry
(350.4990) Other areas of optics : Particles

ToC Category:
Laser-induced Chemistry

History
Original Manuscript: April 26, 2006
Revised Manuscript: September 27, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 17, 2006
Published: February 2, 2007

Citation
Hope A. Michelsen, Alexei V. Tivanski, Mary K. Gilles, Laura H. van Poppel, Mark A. Dansson, and Peter R. Buseck, "Particle formation from pulsed laser irradiation of soot aggregates studied with a scanning mobility particle sizer, a transmission electron microscope, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope," Appl. Opt. 46, 959-977 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-6-959


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. Lahaye and G. Prado, "Morphology and internal structure of soot and carbon blacks," in Particulate Carbon: Formation during Combustion, D.C.Siegla and G.W.Smith, eds. (Plenum, 1981), pp. 33-35.
  2. Ü. Ö. Köylü and G. M. Faeth, "Structure and overfire soot in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames at long residence times," Combust. Flame 89, 140-156 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. H. X. Chen and R. A. Dobbins, "Crystallogenesis of particles formed in hydrocarbon combustion," Combust. Sci. Technol. 159, 109-128 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. B. Hu, B. Yang, and Ü. Ö. Köylü, "Soot measurements at the axis of an ethylene/air nonpremixed turbulent jet flame," Combust. Flame 134, 93-106 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, "Can soot primary particle size be determined using laser-induced incandescence?," Combust. Flame 116, 291-296 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. L. H. van Poppel, H. Friedrich, J. Spinsby, S. H. Chung, J. H. Seinfeld, and P. R. Buseck, "Electron tomography of nanoparticle clusters and implications for atmospheric lifetimes and radiative forcing of soot," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L24811 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Lahaye and F. Ehrburger-Dolle, "Mechanisms of carbon black formation: correlation with the morphology of aggregates," Carbon 32, 1319-1324 (1994). [CrossRef]
  8. T. L. Farias, M. G. Carvalho, Ü. Ö. Köylü, and G. M. Faeth, "Computational evaluation of approximate Rayleigh-Debye-Gans/fractal-aggregate theory for the absorption and scattering properties of soot," J. Heat Transfer 117, 152-159 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. T. L. Farias, Ü. Ö. Köylü, and M. G. Carvalho, "Range of validity of the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for optics of fractal aggregates," Appl. Opt. 35, 6560-6567 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Ü. Ö. Köylü, "Quantitative analysis of in situ optical diagnostics for inferring particle/aggregate parameters in flames: Implications for soot surface growth and total emissivity," Combust. Flame 109, 488-500 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Ku and K.-H. Shim, "A comparison of solutions for light scattering and absorption by aggregated and arbitrarily-shaped particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 47, 201-220 (1992). [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. Ku and K.-H. Shim, "Optical diagnostics and radiative properties of simulated soot aggregates," J. Heat Transfer 113, 953-958 (1991). [CrossRef]
  13. Ü. Ö. Köylü and G. M. Faeth, "Fractal and projected structure properties of soot aggregates," Combust. Flame 100, 621-633 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. C. M. Sorensen, "Light scattering by fractal aggregates: a review," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35, 648-687 (2001).
  15. R. J. Santoro and C. R. Shaddix, "Laser-induced incandescence," in Applied Combustion Diagnostics, K. Kohse-Höinghaus and J.B. Jeffries, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 2002), pp. 252-286.
  16. J. A. Pinson, D. L. Mitchell, and R. J. Santoro, "Quantitative, planar soot measurements in a D. I. diesel engine using laser-induced incandescence and light scattering," in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1993), paper 932650.
  17. J. A. Pinson, T. Ni, and T. A. Litzinger, "Quantitative imaging study of the effects of intake air temperature on soot evaluation in an optically-accessible D. I. diesel engine," in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1994), paper 942044.
  18. R. L. Vander Wal and D. L. Dietrich, "Laser-induced incandescence applied to droplet combustion," Appl. Opt. 34, 1103-1107 (1995). [CrossRef]
  19. T. Ni, J. A. Pinson, S. Gupta, and R. J. Santoro, "Two-dimensional imaging of soot volume fraction by the use of laser-induced incandescence," Appl. Opt. 34, 7083-7091 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Mewes and J. M. Seitzman, "Soot volume fraction and particle size measurements with laser-induced incandescence," Appl. Opt. 36, 709-717 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Roth and A. V. Filippov, "In situ ultrafine particle sizing by a combination of pulsed laser heatup and particle thermal emission," J. Aerosol Sci. 27, 95-104 (1996). [CrossRef]
  22. B. Quay, T.-W. Lee, T. Ni, and R. J. Santoro, "Spatially resolved measurements of soot volume fraction using laser-induced incandescence," Combust. Flame 97, 384-392 (1994). [CrossRef]
  23. C. R. Shaddix and K. C. Smyth, "Laser-induced incandescence measurements of soot production in steady and flickering methane, propane, and ethylene diffusion flames," Combust. Flame 107, 418-452 (1996). [CrossRef]
  24. A. V. Filippov, M. W. Markus, and P. Roth, "In situ characterization of ultrafine particles by laser-induced incandescence: sizing and particle structure determination," J. Aerosol Sci. 30, 71-87 (1999). [CrossRef]
  25. K. Inagaki, S. Takasu, and K. Nakakita, "In-cylinder quantitative soot concentration measurement by laser-induced incandescence," in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1999), paper 1999-1901-0508.
  26. S. Schraml, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous measurement of soot mass concentration and primary particle size in the exhaust of a DI diesel engine by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence," in Proceedings of the SAE (SAE, 1994), paper 1999-1901-0146.
  27. D. J. Bryce, N. Ladommatos, and H. Zhao, "Quantitative investigation of soot distribution by laser-induced incandescence," Appl. Opt. 39, 5012-5022 (2000). [CrossRef]
  28. C. Allouis, A. D'Alessio, C. Noviello, and F. Beretta, "Time resolved laser induced incandescence for soot and cenospheres measurements in oil flames," Combust. Sci. Technol. 153, 51-63 (2000). [CrossRef]
  29. T. Schittkowski, B. Mewes, and D. Brüggemann, "Laser-induced incandescence and Raman measurements in sooting methane and ethylene flames," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 2063-2071 (2002). [CrossRef]
  30. R. Starke, B. Kock, and P. Roth, "Nano-particle sizing by laser-induced incandescence (LII) in a shock wave reactor," Shock Waves 12, 351-360 (2003). [CrossRef]
  31. A. Boiarciuc, F. Foucher, and C. Mounaïm-Rousselle, "Soot volume fraction and primary particle size estimate by means of the simultaneous two-color-time-resolved and 2D laser-induced incandescence," Appl. Phys. B 83, 413-421 (2006). [CrossRef]
  32. F. Liu, M. Yang, F. A. Hill, D. R. Snelling, and G. J. Smallwood, "Influence of polydisperse distributions of both primary particle and aggregate size on soot temperature in low-fluence LII," Appl. Phys. B 83, 383-395 (2006). [CrossRef]
  33. S. Schraml, S. Dankers, K. Bader, S. Will, and A. Leipertz, "Soot temperature measurements and implications for time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TIRE-LII)," Combust. Flame 120, 439-450 (2000). [CrossRef]
  34. B. Axelsson, R. Collin, and P.-E. Bengtsson, "Laser-induced incandescence for soot particle size and volume fraction measurements using on-line extinction calibration," Appl. Phys. B 72, 367-372 (2001).
  35. C. Allouis, F. Beretta, and A. D'Alessio, "Sizing soot and micronic carbonaceous particle in spray flames base on time resolved LII," Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27, 455-463 (2003). [CrossRef]
  36. T. Lehre, B. Jungfleisch, R. Suntz, and H. Bockhorn, "Size distributions of nanoscaled particles and gas temperatures from time-resolved laser-induced incandescence measurements," Appl. Opt. 42, 2021-2030 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. V. Beyer and D. A. Greenhalgh, "Laser induced incandescence under high vacuum conditions," Appl. Phys. B 83, 455-467 (2006). [CrossRef]
  38. R. L. Vander Wal and M. Y. Choi, "Pulsed laser heating of soot: morphological changes," Carbon 37, 231-239 (1999). [CrossRef]
  39. R. L. Vander Wal, C. Y. Choi, and K. O. Lee, "The effects of rapid heating of soot: implications when using laser-induced incandescence for soot diagnostics," Combust. Flame 102, 200-204 (1995). [CrossRef]
  40. R. L. Vander Wal, T. M. Ticich, and A. B. Stephens, "Optical and microscopy investigations of soot structure alterations by laser-induced incandescence," Appl. Phys. B 67, 115-123 (1998). [CrossRef]
  41. R. L. Vander Wal and K. A. Jensen, "Laser-induced incandescence: excitation intensity," Appl. Opt. 37, 1607-1616 (1998). [CrossRef]
  42. B. F. Kock, Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Duisburg-Essen, 2006).
  43. C. J. Dasch, "Continuous-wave probe laser investigation of laser vaporization of small soot particles in a flame," Appl. Opt. 23, 2209-2215 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. P. O. Witze, S. Hochgreb, D. Kayes, H. A. Michelsen, and C. R. Shaddix, "Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence and laser elastic scattering measurements in a propane diffusion flame," Appl. Opt. 40, 2443-2452 (2001). [CrossRef]
  45. G. D. Yoder, P. K. Diwaker, and D. W. Hahn, "Assessment of soot particle vaporization effects during laser-induced incandescence with time-resolved light scattering," Appl. Opt. 44, 4211-4219 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. V. Krüger, C. Wahl, R. Hadef, K. P. Geigle, W. Stricker, and M. Aigner, "Comparison of laser-induced incandescence method with scanning mobility particle sizer technique: the influence of probe sampling and laser heating on soot particle size distribution," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1477-1486 (2005). [CrossRef]
  47. C. J. Damm, D. Lucas, R. F. Sawyer, and C. P. Koshland, "Characterization of diesel particulate matter with excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2767-2774 (2002). [CrossRef]
  48. P.-E. Bengtsson and M. Aldén, "Soot-visualization strategies using laser techniques," Appl. Phys. B 60, 51-59 (1995). [CrossRef]
  49. C. B. Stipe, B. S. Higgins, D. Lucas, C. P. Koshland, and R. F. Sawyer, "Soot detection using excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy," Proc. Combust. Inst. 29, 2759-2766 (2002). [CrossRef]
  50. J. Walewski, M. Rupinski, H. Bladh, Z. S. Li, P.-E. Bengtsson, and M. Aldén, "Soot visualisation by use of laser-induced soot vapourisation in combination with polarisation spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 77, 447-454 (2003). [CrossRef]
  51. C. B. Stipe, J. H. Choi, D. Lucas, C. P. Koshland, and R. F. Sawyer, "Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles," J. Nanopart. Res. 6, 467-477 (2004). [CrossRef]
  52. F. Kokai and Y. Koga, "Time-of-flight mass spectrometric studies on the plume dynamics of laser ablation of graphite," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 121, 387-391 (1997). [CrossRef]
  53. F. Kokai, "Optical emission spectra from laser ablation of graphite at 266 nm and 1064 nm under a magnetic field," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3504-3509 (1997). [CrossRef]
  54. R. W. Dreyfus, R. Kelly, and R. E. Walkup, "Laser-induced fluorescence study of laser sputtering of graphite," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 23, 557-561 (1987). [CrossRef]
  55. J. J. Gaumet, A. Wakisaka, Y. Shimizu, and Y. Tamori, "Energetics for carbon clusters produced directly by laser vaporization of graphite: dependence on laser power and wavelength," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 89, 1667-1670 (1993). [CrossRef]
  56. D. J. Krajnovich, "Laser sputtering of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite at 248 nm," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 726-743 (1995). [CrossRef]
  57. H. C. Ong and R. P. H. Chang, "Effect of laser intensity on the properties of carbon plumes and deposited films," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13213-13220 (1997). [CrossRef]
  58. Y. Yamagata, A. Sharma, and J. Narayan, "Comparative study of pulsed laser ablated plasma plumes from single crystal graphite and amorphous carbon targets. Part 1. Optical emission spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6861-6867 (2000). [CrossRef]
  59. P. T. Murray and D. T. Peeler, "Dynamics of graphite photoablation: kinetic energy of the precursors to diamond-like carbon," Appl. Surf. Sci. 69, 225-230 (1993). [CrossRef]
  60. M.-A. Bratescu, Y. Sakai, D. Yamaoka, Y. Suda, and H. Sugawara, "Electron and excited particle densities in a carbon ablation plume," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198,257-262 (2002). [CrossRef]
  61. T. Shinozaki, T. Ooie, T. Yano, J. P. Zhao, Z. Y. Chen, and M. Yoneda, "Laser-induced optical emission of carbon plume by excimer and Nd:YAG laser irradiation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198,263-267 (2002). [CrossRef]
  62. F. Kokai, K. Takahashi, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, "Emission imaging spectroscopic and shadowgraphic studies on the growth dynamics of graphitic carbon particles synthesized by CO2 laser vaporization," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8686-8693 (1999). [CrossRef]
  63. T. Moriwaki, M. Kobayashi, M. Osaka, M. Ohara, H. Shiromaru, and Y. Achiba, "Dual pathway of carbon cluster formation in the laser vaporization," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8927-8932 (1997). [CrossRef]
  64. K. Sasaki, T. Wakabayashi, S. Matsui, and K. Kadota, "Distributions of C2 and C3 radical densities in laser-ablation carbon plumes measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4033-4039 (2002). [CrossRef]
  65. K. Shibagaki, T. Kawashima, K. Sasaki, and K. Kadota, "Formation of positive and negative carbon cluster ions in the initial phase of laser ablation in vacuum," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4959-4963 (2000). [CrossRef]
  66. M. Ullmann, S. K. Friedlander, and A. Schmidt-Ott, "Nanoparticle formation by laser ablation," J. Nanopart. Res. 4, 499-509 (2002). [CrossRef]
  67. Z. Márton, L. Landstrom, and P. Heszler, "Early stage of the material removal during ArF laser ablation of graphite," Appl. Phys. A 79, 579-585 (2004). [CrossRef]
  68. R. M. Mayo, J. W. Newman, Y. Yamagata, A. Sharma, and J. Narayan, "Comparative study of pulsed laser ablated plasma plumes from single crystal graphite and amorphous carbon targets: Part II. Electrostatic probe measurements," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 6868-6874 (2000). [CrossRef]
  69. H. Kamezaki, K. Tokunaga, S. Fukuda, N. Yoshida, and T. Muroga, "Pulse high heat flux experiment with laser beams on graphite," J. Nucl. Mater. 179, 193-196 (1991). [CrossRef]
  70. K. A. Lincoln and M. A. Covington, "Dynamic sampling of laser-induced vapor plumes by mass spectrometry," Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 16, 191-208 (1975). [CrossRef]
  71. T. Wakabayashi, T. Momose, and T. Shida, "Mass spectroscopic studies of laser ablated carbon clusters as studied by photoionization with 10.5 eV photons under high vacuum," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 6260-6263 (1999). [CrossRef]
  72. J. Berkowitz and W. A. Chupka, "Mass spectrometric study of vapor ejected from graphite and other solids by focused laser beams," J. Chem. Phys. 40, 2735-2736 (1964). [CrossRef]
  73. P. Monchicourt, "Onset of carbon cluster formation inferred from light emission in a laser-induced expansion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1430-1433 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  74. K. Sasaki, T. Wakasaki, and K. Kadota, "Observation of continuum optical emission from laser ablation carbon plumes," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198,197-201 (2002). [CrossRef]
  75. E. A. Rohlfing, "Optical emission studies of atomic, molecular, and particulate carbon produced from a laser vaporization cluster source," J. Chem. Phys. 89, 6103-6112 (1988). [CrossRef]
  76. M. Anselment, R. S. Smith, E. Daykin, and L. F. Dimauro, "Optical emission studies on graphite in a laser/vaporization supersonic jet cluster source," Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 444-449 (1987). [CrossRef]
  77. E. A. Rohlfing, D. M. Cox, and A. Kaldor, "Production and characterization of supersonic carbon cluster beams," J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3322-3330 (1984). [CrossRef]
  78. M. Jeunehomme and R. P. Schwenker, "Focused laser-beam experiment and the oscillator strength of the Swan system," J. Chem. Phys. 42, 2406-2408 (1965). [CrossRef]
  79. A. M. Keszler and L. Nemes, "Time averaged emission spectra of Nd:YAG laser induced carbon plasmas," J. Mol. Struct. 695-696,211-218 (2004). [CrossRef]
  80. J. A. Howe, "Observations on the maser-induced graphite jet," J. Chem. Phys. 39, 1362-1363 (1963). [CrossRef]
  81. L. Nemes, A. M. Keszler, J. O. Hornkolh, and C. G. Parigger, "Laser-induced carbon plasma emission spectroscopic measurements on solid targets and in gas-phase optical breakdown," Appl. Opt. 44, 3661-3667 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  82. S. S. Harilal, R. C. Isaac, C. V. Bindhu, V. P. N. Nampoori, and C. P. G. Vallabhan, "Optical emission studies of C2 species in laser-produced plasma from carbon," J. Phys. D 30, 1703-1709 (1997). [CrossRef]
  83. A. O'Keefe, M. M. Ross, and A. P. Baronavski, "Production of large carbon cluster ions by laser vaporization," Chem. Phys. Lett. 130, 17-19 (1986). [CrossRef]
  84. G. F. Lorusso, V. Capozzi, P. Milani, A. Minafra, and D. Lojacono, "UV spectra of graphite microparticles produced by laser vaporization," Solid State Commun. 85, 729-734 (1993). [CrossRef]
  85. F. Kokai, K. Takahashi, D. Kasuya, A. Nakayama, Y. Koga, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, "Laser vaporization synthesis of polyhedral graphite," Appl. Phys. A 77, 69-71 (2003). [CrossRef]
  86. S. M. Kimbrell and E. S. Yeung, "Real-time particle size measurements in laser-generated plumes by Mie scattering," Appl. Spectrosc. 43, 1248-1251 (1989). [CrossRef]
  87. S. Iijima, T. Wakabayashi, and Y. Achiba, "Structures of carbon soot prepared by laser ablation," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 5839-5843 (1996). [CrossRef]
  88. T. Ishigaki, S. Suzuki, H. Kataura, W. Krätschmer, and Y. Achiba, "Characterization of fullerenes and carbon nanoparticles generated with a laser-furnace technique," Appl. Phys. A 70, 121-124 (2000). [CrossRef]
  89. E. A. Rohlfing and D. W. Chandler, "Two-color pyrometric imaging of laser-heated carbon particles in a supersonic flow," Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 44-50 (1990). [CrossRef]
  90. H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O'Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E. Smalley, "C60: buckminsterfullerene," Nature 318, 162-163 (1985). [CrossRef]
  91. D. M. Cox, K. C. Reichmann, and A. Kaldor, "Carbon clusters revisited: the 'special' behavior of C60 and large carbon clusters," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 1588-1597 (1988). [CrossRef]
  92. M. Pellarin, E. Cottancin, J. Lermé, J. L. Vialle, and M. Broyer, "Coating and polymerization of C60 with carbon: a gas phase photodissociation study," J. Chem. Phys. 117, 3088-3097 (2002). [CrossRef]
  93. S. Suzuki, H. Yamagachi, R. Sen, H. Kataura, W. Krätschmer, and Y. Achiba, "Time and space evolution of carbon species generated with a laser furnace technique," AIP Conf. Proc. 590, 51-54 (2001). [CrossRef]
  94. "Image processing and analysis in Java," http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/.
  95. A. L. D. Kilcoyne, T. Tyliszczak, W. F. Steele, S. Fakra, P. Hitchcock, K. Franck, E. Anderson, B. Harteneck, E. G. Rightor, G. E. Mitchell, A. P. Hitchcock, L. Yang, T. Warwick, and H. Ade, "Interferometer-controlled scanning transmission x-ray microscopes at the advanced light source," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10, 125-136 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  96. Y. Ma, C. T. Chen, G. Meigs, K. Randall, and F. Sette, "High-resolution K-shell photoabsorption measurements of simple molecules," Phys. Rev. A 44, 1848-1858 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  97. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 1998).
  98. T. T. Charalampopoulos and H. Chang, "Agglomerate parameters and fractal dimension of soot using light scattering-effects of surface growth," Combust. Flame 87, 89-99 (1991). [CrossRef]
  99. Ü. Ö. Köylü, Y. C. Xing, and D. E. Rosner, "Fractal morphology analysis of combustion-generated aggregates using angular light scattering and electron microscope images," Langmuir 11, 4848-4854 (1995). [CrossRef]
  100. J.-S. Wu, S. S. Krishnan, and G. M. Faeth, "Refractive indices at visible wavelengths of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames," J. Heat Transfer 119, 230-237 (1997). [CrossRef]
  101. W. S. Bacsa, W. A. de Heer, D. Ugarte, and A. Châtelain, "Raman spectroscopy of closed-shell carbon particles," Chem. Phys. Lett. 211, 346-352 (1993). [CrossRef]
  102. R. H. Hurt, G. P. Crawford, and H.-S. Shim, "Equilibrium nanostructure of primary soot particles," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 2539-2546 (2000). [CrossRef]
  103. R. L. Vander Wal, "A TEM methodology for the study of soot particle structure," Combust. Sci. Technol. 126, 333-357 (1997). [CrossRef]
  104. T. Ishiguro, Y. Takatori, and K. Akihama, "Microstructure of diesel soot particles probed by electron microscopy: first observation of inner core and outer shell," Combust. Flame 108, 231-234 (1997). [CrossRef]
  105. M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, and P. C. Eklund, Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (Academic, 1996).
  106. J. Robertson, "Amorphous carbon," Adv. Phys. 35, 317-374 (1986). [CrossRef]
  107. R. Gago, I. Jiménez, and J. M. Albella, "Detecting with x-ray absorption spectroscopy the modifications of the bonding structure of graphitic carbon by amorphisation, hydrogenation and nitrogenation," Surf. Sci. 482-485,530-536 (2001). [CrossRef]
  108. R. Gago, M. Vinnichenko, H. U. Jäger, A. Y. Belov, I. Jiménez, N. Huang, H. Sun, and M. F. Maitz, "Evolution of sp2 networks with substrate temperature in amorphous carbon films: experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. B 72, 014120 (2005). [CrossRef]
  109. B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, and B. K. Fuikawa, "Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection −E = 100-2000 eV, Z = 1-94," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1-144 (1982). [CrossRef]
  110. R. A. Rosenberg, P. J. Love, and V. Rehn, "Polarization-dependent C(K) near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure of graphite," Phys. Rev. B 33, 4034-4037 (1986). [CrossRef]
  111. C. Lenardi, M. Marino, E. Barborini, P. Piseri, and P. Milani, "Evaluation of hydrogen chemisorption in nanostructured carbon films by near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy," Eur. Phys. J. B 46, 441-447 (2005). [CrossRef]
  112. R. Ahuja, P. A. Brühwiler, J. M. Wills, B. Johansson, N. Mårtensson, and O. Eriksson, "Theoretical and experimental study of the graphite 1s x-ray absorption edges," Phys. Rev. B 54, 14396-14404 (1996). [CrossRef]
  113. R. F. Willis, B. Fitton, and G. S. Painter, "Secondary-electron emission spectroscopy and the observation of high-energy excited states in graphite: theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. B 9, 1926-1937 (1974). [CrossRef]
  114. F. L. Coffman, R. Cao, P. A. Pianetta, S. Kapoor, M. Kelly, and L. J. Terminello, "Near-edge x-ray absorption of carbon materials for determining bond hybridization in mixed sp2/sp3 bonded materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 568-570 (1996). [CrossRef]
  115. J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer, 1996).
  116. M. B. Fernandes, J. O. Skjemstad, B. B. Johnson, J. D. Wells, and P. Brooks, "Characterization of carbonaceous combustion residues: I. Morphological, elemental and spectroscopic features," Chemosphere 51, 785-795 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  117. M. B. Fernandes and P. Brooks, "Characterization of carbonaceous combustion residues: II. Nonpolar organic compounds," Chemosphere 53, 447-458 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  118. G. D. Cody, H. Ade, S. Wirick, G. D. Mitchell, and A. Davis, "Determination of chemical-structural changes in vitrinite accompanying luminescence alteration using C-NEXAFS analysis," Org. Geochem. 28, 441-455 (1998). [CrossRef]
  119. H. A. Michelsen, "Understanding and predicting the temporal response of laser-induced incandescence from carbonaceous particles," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7012-7045 (2003). [CrossRef]
  120. Y. P. Yang, P. Xia, A. L. Junkin, and L. A. Bloomfield, "Direct ejection of clusters from nonmetallic solids during laser vaporization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1205-1208 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  121. H. A. Michelsen, P. O. Witze, D. Kayes, and S. Hochgreb, "Time-resolved laser-induced incandescence of soot: the influence of experimental factors and microphysical mechanisms," Appl. Opt. 42, 5577-5590 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited