## Review of three-dimensional holographic imaging by multiple-viewpoint-projection based methods

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 34, pp. H120-H136 (2009)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.48.00H120

Acrobat PDF (1472 KB)

### Abstract

Methods of generating multiple viewpoint projection holograms of three-dimensional (3-D) realistic objects illuminated by incoherent white light are reviewed in this paper. Using these methods, it is possible to obtain holograms with a simple digital camera, operating in regular light conditions. Thus, most disadvantages characterizing conventional digital holography, namely the need for a powerful, highly coherent laser and extreme stability of the optical system, are avoided. The proposed holographic processes are composed of two stages. In the first stage, regular intensity-based images of the 3-D scene are captured from multiple points of view by a simple digital camera. In the second stage, the acquired projections are digitally processed to yield the complex digital hologram of the 3-D scene, where no interference is involved in the process. For highly reflecting 3-D objects, the resulting hologram is equivalent to an optical hologram of the objects recorded from the central point of view. We first review various methods to acquire the multiple viewpoint projections. These include the use of a microlens array and a macrolens array, as well as digitally generated projections that are not acquired optically. Next, we show how to digitally process the acquired projections to Fourier, Fresnel, and image holograms. Additionally, to obtain certain advantages over the known types of holograms, the proposed hybrid optical-digital process can yield novel types of holograms such as the modified Fresnel hologram and the protected correlation hologram. The prospective goal of these methods is to facilitate the design of a simple and portable digital holographic camera that can be useful for a variety of practical applications, including 3-D video acquisition and various types of biomedical imaging. We review several of these applications to signify the advantages of multiple viewpoint projection holography.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

4. A. W. Lohmann, “Wavefront reconstruction for incoherent objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. **55**, 1555–1556 (1965). [CrossRef]

5. G. W. Stroke and R. C. Restrick, “Holography with spatially noncoherent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **7**, 229–231 (1965). [CrossRef]

6. H. R. Worthington, “Production of holograms with incoherent illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. **56**, 1397–1398 (1966). [CrossRef]

7. G. Cochran, “New method of making Fresnel transforms with incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. **56**, 1513–1517 (1966). [CrossRef]

8. P. J. Peters, “Incoherent holograms with a mercury light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **8**, 209–210 (1966). [CrossRef]

9. G. Sirat and D. Psaltis, “Conoscopic holography,” Opt. Lett. **10**, 4–6 (1985). [CrossRef]

10. A. S. Marathay, “Noncoherent-object hologram: its reconstruction and opticalprocessing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **4**, 1861–1868 (1987). [CrossRef]

12. G. Indebetouw, P. Klysubun, T. Kim, and T.-C. Poon, “Imaging properties of scanning holographic microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **17**, 380–390 (2000). [CrossRef]

13. B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, “Three-dimensional holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. **22**, 1506–1508 (1997). [CrossRef]

15. J. Rosen and G. Brooker “Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography,” Opt. Lett. **32**, 912–914 (2007). [CrossRef]

16. J. Rosen and G. Brooker “Fluorescence incoherent color holography,” Opt. Express **15**, 2244–2250 (2007). [CrossRef]

17. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photon. **2**, 190–195 (2008). [CrossRef]

19. T.-C. Poon, “Holography: Scan-free three-dimensional imag ing,” Nat. Photon. **2**, 131–132 (2008). [CrossRef]

20. T. Yatagai, “Stereoscopic approach to 3-D display using computer-generated holograms,” Appl. Opt. **15**, 2722–2729 (1976). [CrossRef]

21. T. Mishina, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Calculation of holograms from elemental images captured by integral photography,” Appl. Opt. **45**, 4026–4036 (2006). [CrossRef]

## 2. Optical Acquisition of the Multiple Viewpoint Projections

### 2A. Shifting the Camera

24. Y. Li, D. Abookasis, and J. Rosen, “Computer-generated holograms of three-dimensional realistic objects recorded without wave interference,” Appl. Opt. **40**, 2864–2870 (2001). [CrossRef]

25. D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Computer-generated holograms of three-dimensional objects synthesized from their multiple angular viewpoints,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **20**, 1537–1545 (2003). [CrossRef]

26. Y. Sando, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Holographic three-dimensional display synthesized from three-dimensional Fourier spectra of real-existing objects,” Opt. Lett. **28**, 2518–2520 (2003). [CrossRef]

27. Y. Sando, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Full-color computer- generated holograms using 3-D Fourier spectra,” Opt. Express **12**, 6246–6251 (2004). [CrossRef]

28. D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Three types of computer- generated hologram synthesized from multiple angular viewpoints of a three-dimensional scene,” Appl. Opt. **45**, 6533–6538 (2006). [CrossRef]

### 2B. Spatial Multiplexing for Completely-Optically Acquiring Multiple Viewpoint Projections

29. N. T. Shaked, J. Rosen, and A. Stern, “Integral holography: white-light single-shot hologram acquisition,” Opt. Express **15**, 5754–5760 (2007). [CrossRef]

30. B. Lee, S. Jung, and J. H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching,” Opt. Lett. **27**, 818–820 (2002). [CrossRef]

31. A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three dimensional sensing, visualization, andprocessing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE **94**, 591–607 (2006). [CrossRef]

32. J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using ortho graphic projection images,” Opt. Express **17**, 6320–6334 (2009). [CrossRef]

### 2C. Shifting the Camera and Digital Postprocessing

33. B. Katz, N. T. Shaked, and J. Rosen, “Synthesizing computer generated holograms with reduced number of perspective projections,” Opt. Express **15**, 13250–13255 (2007). [CrossRef]

33. B. Katz, N. T. Shaked, and J. Rosen, “Synthesizing computer generated holograms with reduced number of perspective projections,” Opt. Express **15**, 13250–13255 (2007). [CrossRef]

### 2D. Spatial Multiplexing Using a Macrolens Array and Digital Postprocessing

36. N. T. Shaked, B. Katz, and J. Rosen, “Fluorescence multicolor hologram recorded by using a macrolens array,” Opt. Lett. **33**, 1461–1463 (2008). [CrossRef]

29. N. T. Shaked, J. Rosen, and A. Stern, “Integral holography: white-light single-shot hologram acquisition,” Opt. Express **15**, 5754–5760 (2007). [CrossRef]

33. B. Katz, N. T. Shaked, and J. Rosen, “Synthesizing computer generated holograms with reduced number of perspective projections,” Opt. Express **15**, 13250–13255 (2007). [CrossRef]

## 3. Hologram Generation by Digital Processing of the Multiple Viewpoint Projections

24. Y. Li, D. Abookasis, and J. Rosen, “Computer-generated holograms of three-dimensional realistic objects recorded without wave interference,” Appl. Opt. **40**, 2864–2870 (2001). [CrossRef]

25. D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Computer-generated holograms of three-dimensional objects synthesized from their multiple angular viewpoints,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **20**, 1537–1545 (2003). [CrossRef]

28. D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Three types of computer- generated hologram synthesized from multiple angular viewpoints of a three-dimensional scene,” Appl. Opt. **45**, 6533–6538 (2006). [CrossRef]

29. N. T. Shaked, J. Rosen, and A. Stern, “Integral holography: white-light single-shot hologram acquisition,” Opt. Express **15**, 5754–5760 (2007). [CrossRef]

**15**, 13250–13255 (2007). [CrossRef]

36. N. T. Shaked, B. Katz, and J. Rosen, “Fluorescence multicolor hologram recorded by using a macrolens array,” Opt. Lett. **33**, 1461–1463 (2008). [CrossRef]

37. N. T. Shaked and J. Rosen, “Modified Fresnel computer- generated hologram directly recorded by multiple-viewpoint projections,” Appl. Opt. **47**, D21–D27 (2008). [CrossRef]

38. N. T. Shaked and J. Rosen, “Multiple-viewpoint projection holograms synthesized by spatially incoherent correlation with broadband functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **25**, 2129–2138 (2008). [CrossRef]

### 3A. One-Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Holograms

24. Y. Li, D. Abookasis, and J. Rosen, “Computer-generated holograms of three-dimensional realistic objects recorded without wave interference,” Appl. Opt. **40**, 2864–2870 (2001). [CrossRef]

**15**, 13250–13255 (2007). [CrossRef]

37. N. T. Shaked and J. Rosen, “Modified Fresnel computer- generated hologram directly recorded by multiple-viewpoint projections,” Appl. Opt. **47**, D21–D27 (2008). [CrossRef]

38. N. T. Shaked and J. Rosen, “Multiple-viewpoint projection holograms synthesized by spatially incoherent correlation with broadband functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **25**, 2129–2138 (2008). [CrossRef]

25. D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Computer-generated holograms of three-dimensional objects synthesized from their multiple angular viewpoints,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **20**, 1537–1545 (2003). [CrossRef]

26. Y. Sando, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Holographic three-dimensional display synthesized from three-dimensional Fourier spectra of real-existing objects,” Opt. Lett. **28**, 2518–2520 (2003). [CrossRef]

27. Y. Sando, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Full-color computer- generated holograms using 3-D Fourier spectra,” Opt. Express **12**, 6246–6251 (2004). [CrossRef]

28. D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Three types of computer- generated hologram synthesized from multiple angular viewpoints of a three-dimensional scene,” Appl. Opt. **45**, 6533–6538 (2006). [CrossRef]

**15**, 5754–5760 (2007). [CrossRef]

32. J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using ortho graphic projection images,” Opt. Express **17**, 6320–6334 (2009). [CrossRef]

36. N. T. Shaked, B. Katz, and J. Rosen, “Fluorescence multicolor hologram recorded by using a macrolens array,” Opt. Lett. **33**, 1461–1463 (2008). [CrossRef]

38. N. T. Shaked and J. Rosen, “Multiple-viewpoint projection holograms synthesized by spatially incoherent correlation with broadband functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **25**, 2129–2138 (2008). [CrossRef]

*m*, so that the middle projection is denoted by

*m*th projection

*n*is the row number in the complex matrix

*m*; and

*δ*is the Dirac delta function. According to Eq. (1), each projection contributes a different column to the complex matrix

*m*and

*n*, so that the middle projection is denoted by

*m*and

*n*. The process manifested by Eq. (5) is repeated for all the projections, but in contrast to the 1-D case, in the 2-D case each projection contributes a single pixel to the hologram matrix rather than a column of pixels. In the end of this digital process, the obtained 2-D complex matrix

39. D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Digital correlation holograms implemented on a joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. **225**, 31–37 (2003). [CrossRef]

**40**, 2864–2870 (2001). [CrossRef]

**20**, 1537–1545 (2003). [CrossRef]

26. Y. Sando, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Holographic three-dimensional display synthesized from three-dimensional Fourier spectra of real-existing objects,” Opt. Lett. **28**, 2518–2520 (2003). [CrossRef]

27. Y. Sando, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Full-color computer- generated holograms using 3-D Fourier spectra,” Opt. Express **12**, 6246–6251 (2004). [CrossRef]

**45**, 6533–6538 (2006). [CrossRef]

**15**, 5754–5760 (2007). [CrossRef]

**15**, 13250–13255 (2007). [CrossRef]

**28**, 2518–2520 (2003). [CrossRef]

**12**, 6246–6251 (2004). [CrossRef]

**45**, 6533–6538 (2006). [CrossRef]

**45**, 6533–6538 (2006). [CrossRef]

**45**, 6533–6538 (2006). [CrossRef]

37. N. T. Shaked and J. Rosen, “Modified Fresnel computer- generated hologram directly recorded by multiple-viewpoint projections,” Appl. Opt. **47**, D21–D27 (2008). [CrossRef]

**25**, 2129–2138 (2008). [CrossRef]

### 3B. Fourier Holograms

*b*is an adjustable parameter. Similarly, in order to use the MVPs to generate a 2-D MVP Fourier hologram, Eq. (5) should be used, where the generating PSF of this hologram is given by

*m*and

*n*). In the mathematical proof of this method [24

**40**, 2864–2870 (2001). [CrossRef]

### 3C. Fresnel and Image Holograms

**12**, 6246–6251 (2004). [CrossRef]

**45**, 6533–6538 (2006). [CrossRef]

### 3D. Modified Fresnel Hologram (DIMFH)

**47**, D21–D27 (2008). [CrossRef]

**25**, 2129–2138 (2008). [CrossRef]

32. J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using ortho graphic projection images,” Opt. Express **17**, 6320–6334 (2009). [CrossRef]

**47**, D21–D27 (2008). [CrossRef]

**45**, 6533–6538 (2006). [CrossRef]

*α*is the gap between two adjacent projections,

*f*is the focal length of the imaging lens,

*M*is the magnification of the imaging lens. Similarly, the magnifications of 2-D incoherent correlation holograms are given by

*x*for the 1-D case and

**25**, 2129–2138 (2008). [CrossRef]

### 3E. Protected Correlation Hologram (DIPCH)

42. D. C. Youla and H. Webb, “Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 1—theory,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag ing **1**, 81–94 (1982). [CrossRef]

43. J. R. Fienup, “Phase-retrieval algorithm: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. **21**, 2758–2769 (1982). [CrossRef]

45. J. Rosen and J. Shamir, “Application of the projection-onto-constraint-sets algorithm for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Lett. **16**, 752–754 (1991). [CrossRef]

**25**, 2129–2138 (2008). [CrossRef]

## 4. Selected Applications

### 4A. Real-Time 3-D Video Acquisition and Video Conferencing

### 4B. Three-Dimensional Biomedical Imaging

**33**, 1461–1463 (2008). [CrossRef]

*in vivo*or

*ex vivo*3-D holographic imaging of biological objects that have been fluorescently labeled [46, 47].

48. N. T. Shaked, Y. Yitzhaky, and J. Rosen “Incoherent holographic imaging through thin turbulent media,” Opt. Commun. **282**, 1546–1550 (2009). [CrossRef]

50. J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. **42**, 825–840 (1997). [CrossRef]

52. J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “Noninvasive optical imaging by speckle ensemble,” Opt. Lett. **29**, 253–255 (2004). [CrossRef]

53. J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “NOISE 2 imaging system: Seeing through scattering tissue by correlation with a point,” Opt. Lett. **29**, 253 (2004). [CrossRef]

54. D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Stereoscopic imaging through scattering media,” Opt. Lett. **31**, 724–726 (2006). [CrossRef]

55. I. Moon and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in scattering medium by use of computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express **16**, 13080–13089 (2008). [CrossRef]

### 4C. Three-Dimensional Object Recognition

57. N. T. Shaked, G. Segev, and J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional object recognition using a quasi-correlator invariant to imaging distances,” Opt. Express **16**, 17148–17153 (2008). [CrossRef]

59. J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional optical Fourier transform and correlation,” Opt. Lett. **22**, 964–966 (1997). [CrossRef]

60. J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional electro-optical correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **15**, 430–436 (1998). [CrossRef]

61. J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. **37**, 7538–7544 (1998). [CrossRef]

62. Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional pattern recognition with a single two-dimensional synthetic reference function,” Appl. Opt. **39**, 1251–1259 (2000). [CrossRef]

63. Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional correlator with general complex filters,” Appl. Opt. **39**, 6561–6572 (2000). [CrossRef]

64. T.-C. Poon and T. Kim, “Optical image recognition of three dimensional objects,” Appl. Opt. **38**, 370–381 (1999). [CrossRef]

65. J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Mas, and J. Garcia, “Three dimensional object recognition by Fourier transform profilometry,” Appl. Opt. **38**, 4760–4765 (1999). [CrossRef]

66. Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Object recognition using three- dimensional optical quasi-correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **19**, 1755–1762 (2002). [CrossRef]

67. B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Díaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three- dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using com putational integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. **31**, 1106–1108 (2006). [CrossRef]

68. J.-S. Park, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Resolution-enhanced three-dimensional image correlator using computationally reconstructed integral images,” Opt. Commun. **276**, 72–79 (2007). [CrossRef]

69. D.-H. Shin and H. Yoo, “Scale-variant magnification for computational integral imaging and its application to 3D object correlator,” Opt. Express **16**, 8855–8867 (2008). [CrossRef]

70. Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Scale-invariant recognition of three- dimensional objects using quasi-correlator,” Appl. Opt. **42**, 811–819 (2003). [CrossRef]

63. Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional correlator with general complex filters,” Appl. Opt. **39**, 6561–6572 (2000). [CrossRef]

70. Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Scale-invariant recognition of three- dimensional objects using quasi-correlator,” Appl. Opt. **42**, 811–819 (2003). [CrossRef]

71. J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a subimage array,” Opt. Express **13**, 5116–5126 (2005). [CrossRef]

## 5. Conclusions

1. | P. Hariharan, |

2. | R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, |

3. | U. Schnars and W. Juptner, |

4. | A. W. Lohmann, “Wavefront reconstruction for incoherent objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. |

5. | G. W. Stroke and R. C. Restrick, “Holography with spatially noncoherent light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

6. | H. R. Worthington, “Production of holograms with incoherent illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. |

7. | G. Cochran, “New method of making Fresnel transforms with incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. |

8. | P. J. Peters, “Incoherent holograms with a mercury light source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

9. | G. Sirat and D. Psaltis, “Conoscopic holography,” Opt. Lett. |

10. | A. S. Marathay, “Noncoherent-object hologram: its reconstruction and opticalprocessing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

11. | T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, “Three-dimensional microscopy by optical scanning holography,” Opt. Eng. |

12. | G. Indebetouw, P. Klysubun, T. Kim, and T.-C. Poon, “Imaging properties of scanning holographic microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

13. | B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, “Three-dimensional holographic fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. |

14. | L. Mertz and N. O. Young, “Fresnel transformations of images,” |

15. | J. Rosen and G. Brooker “Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography,” Opt. Lett. |

16. | J. Rosen and G. Brooker “Fluorescence incoherent color holography,” Opt. Express |

17. | J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photon. |

18. | J. Rosen, G. Indebetouw, G. Brooker, and N. T. Shaked, “A review of incoherent digital Fresnel holography,” J. Holography Speckle |

19. | T.-C. Poon, “Holography: Scan-free three-dimensional imag ing,” Nat. Photon. |

20. | T. Yatagai, “Stereoscopic approach to 3-D display using computer-generated holograms,” Appl. Opt. |

21. | T. Mishina, M. Okui, and F. Okano, “Calculation of holograms from elemental images captured by integral photography,” Appl. Opt. |

22. | J. W. Goodman, |

23. | T. Kreis, |

24. | Y. Li, D. Abookasis, and J. Rosen, “Computer-generated holograms of three-dimensional realistic objects recorded without wave interference,” Appl. Opt. |

25. | D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Computer-generated holograms of three-dimensional objects synthesized from their multiple angular viewpoints,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

26. | Y. Sando, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Holographic three-dimensional display synthesized from three-dimensional Fourier spectra of real-existing objects,” Opt. Lett. |

27. | Y. Sando, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Full-color computer- generated holograms using 3-D Fourier spectra,” Opt. Express |

28. | D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Three types of computer- generated hologram synthesized from multiple angular viewpoints of a three-dimensional scene,” Appl. Opt. |

29. | N. T. Shaked, J. Rosen, and A. Stern, “Integral holography: white-light single-shot hologram acquisition,” Opt. Express |

30. | B. Lee, S. Jung, and J. H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching,” Opt. Lett. |

31. | A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three dimensional sensing, visualization, andprocessing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE |

32. | J.-H. Park, M.-S. Kim, G. Baasantseren, and N. Kim, “Fresnel and Fourier hologram generation using ortho graphic projection images,” Opt. Express |

33. | B. Katz, N. T. Shaked, and J. Rosen, “Synthesizing computer generated holograms with reduced number of perspective projections,” Opt. Express |

34. | D. Scharstein, |

35. | J.-S. Park, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Enhanced-resolution computational integral imaging reconstruction using an intermediate-view reconstruction technique,” Opt. Eng. |

36. | N. T. Shaked, B. Katz, and J. Rosen, “Fluorescence multicolor hologram recorded by using a macrolens array,” Opt. Lett. |

37. | N. T. Shaked and J. Rosen, “Modified Fresnel computer- generated hologram directly recorded by multiple-viewpoint projections,” Appl. Opt. |

38. | N. T. Shaked and J. Rosen, “Multiple-viewpoint projection holograms synthesized by spatially incoherent correlation with broadband functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

39. | D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Digital correlation holograms implemented on a joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. |

40. | B. Javidi and A. Sergent, “Fully phase encoded key and biometrics for security verification,” Opt. Eng. |

41. | D. Abookasis, A. Batikoff, H. Famini, and J. Rosen, “Performance comparison of iterative algorithms for generating digital correlation holograms used in optical security systems,” Appl. Opt. |

42. | D. C. Youla and H. Webb, “Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 1—theory,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag ing |

43. | J. R. Fienup, “Phase-retrieval algorithm: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. |

44. | H. Stark, |

45. | J. Rosen and J. Shamir, “Application of the projection-onto-constraint-sets algorithm for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Lett. |

46. | J. R. Lakowicz, |

47. | T. Vo-Dinh, ed., |

48. | N. T. Shaked, Y. Yitzhaky, and J. Rosen “Incoherent holographic imaging through thin turbulent media,” Opt. Commun. |

49. | T. Vo-Dinh, ed., |

50. | J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. |

51. | J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “Seeing through biological tissues using the fly eye principle,” Opt. Express |

52. | J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “Noninvasive optical imaging by speckle ensemble,” Opt. Lett. |

53. | J. Rosen and D. Abookasis, “NOISE 2 imaging system: Seeing through scattering tissue by correlation with a point,” Opt. Lett. |

54. | D. Abookasis and J. Rosen, “Stereoscopic imaging through scattering media,” Opt. Lett. |

55. | I. Moon and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in scattering medium by use of computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express |

56. | O. Shacham, O. Haik, and Y. Yitzhaky, “Blind restoration of atmospherically degraded images by automatic best step edge detection,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. |

57. | N. T. Shaked, G. Segev, and J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional object recognition using a quasi-correlator invariant to imaging distances,” Opt. Express |

58. | R. Bamler and J. Hofer-Alfeis, “Three- and four dimensional filter operations by coherent optics,” Opt. Acta |

59. | J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional optical Fourier transform and correlation,” Opt. Lett. |

60. | J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional electro-optical correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

61. | J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. |

62. | Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional pattern recognition with a single two-dimensional synthetic reference function,” Appl. Opt. |

63. | Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional correlator with general complex filters,” Appl. Opt. |

64. | T.-C. Poon and T. Kim, “Optical image recognition of three dimensional objects,” Appl. Opt. |

65. | J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Mas, and J. Garcia, “Three dimensional object recognition by Fourier transform profilometry,” Appl. Opt. |

66. | Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Object recognition using three- dimensional optical quasi-correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

67. | B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Díaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three- dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using com putational integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. |

68. | J.-S. Park, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Resolution-enhanced three-dimensional image correlator using computationally reconstructed integral images,” Opt. Commun. |

69. | D.-H. Shin and H. Yoo, “Scale-variant magnification for computational integral imaging and its application to 3D object correlator,” Opt. Express |

70. | Y. Li and J. Rosen, “Scale-invariant recognition of three- dimensional objects using quasi-correlator,” Appl. Opt. |

71. | J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a subimage array,” Opt. Express |

**OCIS Codes**

(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography

(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques

(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging

(090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

**History**

Original Manuscript: July 2, 2009

Revised Manuscript: September 2, 2009

Manuscript Accepted: September 2, 2009

Published: October 9, 2009

**Virtual Issues**

(2009) *Advances in Optics and Photonics*

Vol. 5, Iss. 1 *Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics*

Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging: Interactive Science Publishing (2009) *Applied Optics*

October 8, 2009 *Spotlight on Optics*

**Citation**

Natan T. Shaked, Barak Katz, and Joseph Rosen, "Review of three-dimensional holographic imaging by multiple-viewpoint-projection based methods," Appl. Opt. **48**, H120-H136 (2009)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-48-34-H120

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