## Computational integral-imaging reconstruction-based 3-D volumetric target object recognition by using a 3-D reference object

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 34, pp. H95-H104 (2009)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.48.000H95

Acrobat PDF (1315 KB)

### Abstract

In this paper, we propose a novel computational integral-imaging reconstruction (CIIR)-based three- dimensional (3-D) image correlator system for the recognition of 3-D volumetric objects by employing a 3-D reference object. That is, a number of plane object images (POIs) computationally reconstructed from the 3-D reference object are used for the 3-D volumetric target recognition. In other words, simultaneous 3-D image correlations between two sets of target and reference POIs, which are depth- dependently reconstructed by using the CIIR method, are performed for effective recognition of 3-D volumetric objects in the proposed system. Successful experiments with this CIIR-based 3-D image correlator confirmed the feasibility of the proposed method.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

1. K. Iizuka, “Welcome to the wonderful world of 3D:
Introduction, principles and history,” Opt.
Photon. News **17** (7),
42–51
(2006). [CrossRef]

3. S.-C. Kim, P. Sukhbat, and E.-S. Kim, “Generation of
three- dimensional integral
images from a holographic pattern of 3-D objects,”
Appl. Opt. **47**,
3901–3908
(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Effective generation of digital holograms of
3-D objects using a novel look-up table method,”
Appl. Opt. **47**,
D55–D62
(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. T.-C. Poon and T. Kim, “Optical image recognition of
three- dimensional
objects,” Appl. Opt. **38**,
370–381
(1999). [CrossRef]

6. B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use
of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. **25**, 610–612
(2000). [CrossRef]

7. Y. Frauel, E. Tajahuerce, M. A. Castro, and B. Javidi, “Distortion-tolerant three-dimensional object
recognition with digital holography,” Appl.
Opt. **40**,
3887–3893
(2001). [CrossRef]

8. A. Pu, R. Denkewalter, and D. Psaltis, “Real-time vehicle
navigation using a
holographic memory,” Opt. Eng. **36**,
2737–2746
(1997). [CrossRef]

9. J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional electro-optical
correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **15**,
430–436
(1998). [CrossRef]

10. J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional joint transform
correlator,” Appl. Opt. **37**,
7538–7544
(1998). [CrossRef]

11. O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, “Real-time
three- dimensional object
recognition with multiple perspectives imaging,”
Appl. Opt. **40**,
3318–3325
(2001). [CrossRef]

12. Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, “Digital three-dimensional image correlation
by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging,”
Appl. Opt. **41**,
5488–5496
(2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. S. Kishk and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object sensing and
recognition using time multiplexed computational integral
imaging,” Opt. Express **11**,
3528–3541
(2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. J. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a
sub-image array,” Opt. Express **13**,
5116–5126
(2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. B. Javidi, R. Ronce-Diaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded
objects by using computational integral imaging,”
Opt. Lett. **31**,
1106–1108
(2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. T.-C. Poon and T. Kim, “Optical image recognition of
three- dimensional
objects,” Appl. Opt. **38**,
370–381
(1999). [CrossRef]

6. B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use
of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. **25**, 610–612
(2000). [CrossRef]

7. Y. Frauel, E. Tajahuerce, M. A. Castro, and B. Javidi, “Distortion-tolerant three-dimensional object
recognition with digital holography,” Appl.
Opt. **40**,
3887–3893
(2001). [CrossRef]

8. A. Pu, R. Denkewalter, and D. Psaltis, “Real-time vehicle
navigation using a
holographic memory,” Opt. Eng. **36**,
2737–2746
(1997). [CrossRef]

9. J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional electro-optical
correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **15**,
430–436
(1998). [CrossRef]

10. J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional joint transform
correlator,” Appl. Opt. **37**,
7538–7544
(1998). [CrossRef]

11. O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, “Real-time
three- dimensional object
recognition with multiple perspectives imaging,”
Appl. Opt. **40**,
3318–3325
(2001). [CrossRef]

12. Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, “Digital three-dimensional image correlation
by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging,”
Appl. Opt. **41**,
5488–5496
(2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. S. Kishk and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object sensing and
recognition using time multiplexed computational integral
imaging,” Opt. Express **11**,
3528–3541
(2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. J. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a
sub-image array,” Opt. Express **13**,
5116–5126
(2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. B. Javidi, R. Ronce-Diaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded
objects by using computational integral imaging,”
Opt. Lett. **31**,
1106–1108
(2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16. A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing,
visualization, andprocessing using integral imaging,” Proc.
IEEE **94**,
591–607
(2006). [CrossRef]

18. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on
integral photography,” Opt. Eng. **38**,
1072–1077
(1999). [CrossRef]

19. B. Lee, S. Y. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park,
“Three- dimensional
display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image
planes,” Opt. Lett. **26**,
1481–1482
(2001). [CrossRef]

20. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of
three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary
micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. **27**,
324–326
(2002). [CrossRef]

21. D.-H. Shin, B.-H. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multidirectional curved integral imaging with
large depth by additional use of a large-aperture
lens,” Appl. Opt. **45**,
7375–7381
(2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22. H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional
imag ing with
digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. **26**, 157–159
(2001). [CrossRef]

23. S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional
vol umetric
object reconstruction using computational integral
imaging,” Opt. Express **12**,
483–491
(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24. S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object reconstruction
using computational integral imaging with time
multiplexing,” Opt. Express **12**,
4579–4588
(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25. D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of
three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet
array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **44**,
8016–8018
(2005). [CrossRef]

26. H. Yoo and D.-H. Shin, “Improved analysis on the signal property of
computational integral imaging system,” Opt.
Express **15**,
14107–14114
(2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23. S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional
vol umetric
object reconstruction using computational integral
imaging,” Opt. Express **12**,
483–491
(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24. S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object reconstruction
using computational integral imaging with time
multiplexing,” Opt. Express **12**,
4579–4588
(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25. D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of
three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet
array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **44**,
8016–8018
(2005). [CrossRef]

26. H. Yoo and D.-H. Shin, “Improved analysis on the signal property of
computational integral imaging system,” Opt.
Express **15**,
14107–14114
(2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. S. Kishk and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object sensing and
recognition using time multiplexed computational integral
imaging,” Opt. Express **11**,
3528–3541
(2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*et al.*proposed a CIIR-based recognition method of partially occluded 3-D objects by using a spatial filter [15

15. B. Javidi, R. Ronce-Diaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded
objects by using computational integral imaging,”
Opt. Lett. **31**,
1106–1108
(2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27. D.-H. Shin and H. Yoo, “Scale-variant magnification for computational
integral imaging and its application to 3D object
correlator,” Opt. Express **16**,
8855–8867
(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*et al.*proposed a CIIR-based depth-extraction method using an image separation technique [28

28. D.-C. Hwang, K.-J. Lee, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Extraction of location coordinates of 3-D
objects from computationally reconstructed integral images basing on a
blur metric,” Opt. Express **16**,
3623–3635
(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*et al.*proposed a robust CIIR-based 3-D object recognition system using depth data of the picked-up elemental images [29

29. G. Li, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Performance-enhanced 3-D object recognition
by use of computational integral imaging with depth data of the
picked-up elemental images,” Jpn. J. Appl.
Phys. **48**, 092401 (2009). [CrossRef]

28. D.-C. Hwang, K.-J. Lee, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Extraction of location coordinates of 3-D
objects from computationally reconstructed integral images basing on a
blur metric,” Opt. Express **16**,
3623–3635
(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30. K.-J. Lee, D.-C. Hwang, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim,
“Blur- metric-based
resolution enhancement of computationally reconstructed integral
images,” Appl. Opt. **47**,
2859–2869
(2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22. H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional
imag ing with
digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. **26**, 157–159
(2001). [CrossRef]

23. S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional
vol umetric
object reconstruction using computational integral
imaging,” Opt. Express **12**,
483–491
(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24. S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object reconstruction
using computational integral imaging with time
multiplexing,” Opt. Express **12**,
4579–4588
(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25. D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of
three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet
array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **44**,
8016–8018
(2005). [CrossRef]

26. H. Yoo and D.-H. Shin, “Improved analysis on the signal property of
computational integral imaging system,” Opt.
Express **15**,
14107–14114
(2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Conventional Computational Integral-Imaging Reconstruction Technique

22. H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional
imag ing with
digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. **26**, 157–159
(2001). [CrossRef]

**12**,
483–491
(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**12**,
4579–4588
(2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**44**,
8016–8018
(2005). [CrossRef]

**15**,
14107–14114
(2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*z*and

*g*are the distance from the reconstructed image plane to the virtual pinhole array and the distance from the EIA to the virtual pinhole array, respectively.

*z*. Repeating the above process by varying the output distance value of

*z*, a set of POIs can be reconstructed along the output plane.

## 3. Proposed Computational Integral-Imaging Based Reconstruction 3-D Image Correlator System

*g*. In the second step, a set of EIA of the reference 3-D volumetric object is captured on each pickup plane corresponding to the distance of multiple times of

*g*, and these picked-up EIAs are also reconstructed on each output plane corresponding to the distance of multiple times of

*g*.

*g*are performed for the recognition of the 3-D volumetric target object. In this method, a group of reference POIs reconstructed along the output plane is simultaneously used in the process of correlation with a set of target POIs, contrary to the conventional method, in which only one reference object image is used.

### 3A. Pickup and Reconstruction of 3-D Volumetric Target Objects

*Car*1,

*Car*2, and

*Car*3 are used as test 3-D objects, which are mutually nonoverlapped along the longitudinal direction and located at

*Car*1,

*Car*2, and

*Car*3 is

*Car*1 was originally located, so that only the front image of

*Car*1 is reconstructed to be focused a little bit, but the object images reconstructed on all the other planes are blurred a great deal. This result could be well explained based on the property of the CIIR algorithm mentioned above, by which only the POI reconstructed on the output plane where the object was originally located is clearly focused, whereas other POIs reconstructed away from these focused planes are not.

*Car*2 and part of

*Car*1 were originally located. As shown in Fig. 6f, the front image of

*Car*2 and some image between the front and middle part of

*Car*1 are reconstructed to be somewhat focused, but the object images reconstructed on the other planes are also blurred a great deal. In addition Fig. 6g shows the target POIs reconstructed at a distance of

*Car*3 and some parts of

*Car*2 and

*Car*1 were located. As you can see in Fig. 6g, the middle image of

*Car*1, some image between the front and middle part of

*Car*2 and the front image of

*Car*3 are reconstructed to be focused, but the other objects reconstructed on other planes get blurred.

*Car*1,

*Car*2, and

*Car*3 are still reconstructed as a focused form because each object has its length of

### 3B. Pickup of the 3-D Volumetric Reference Object and Its Reconstruction

*Car*2 and a set of EIA of the reference object of

*Car*2 is picked up along the output plane in the proposed method. That is, the 3-D reference object of

*Car*2 is located at

*g*between the pinhole array and pickup plane. Figure 7 shows the top and side views of the reference 3-D volumetric object of

*Car*2 located in front of the pinhole array and it has a length of

*Car*2 is also computationally picked up by sequentially locating the car object

*Car*2 at each plane of

*Car*2 is given by

*Car*2 picked up at each depth plane of

*Car*2, which is located at

*Car*2, which was located at the position of

*Car*2 is reconstructed to be focused a little bit, but the object images reconstructed on all the other planes are much blurred as we expect. Figure 9(a-5) also shows the reference POI reconstructed at a distance of

*Car*2 is reconstructed to be focused, but the other parts of reference object reconstructed on the other planes get blurred. In addition, Fig. 9(a-7) shows the reference POI reconstructed at the distance of

*Car*2 is reconstructed to be focused, but other parts of the reference object reconstructed on the other planes get blurred.

*Car*2, which was located at the position of

*Car*2. As shown in Fig. 10, the front parts of

*Car*2 are all clearly focused, but the back parts of

*Car*2 are all severely blurred. Accordingly, it is noted here that the clearly focused image part of each reconstructed reference POIs are different from each other depending on the original position of the 3-D reference object located in the pickup process, even though all these reference POIs reconstructed the same part of the 3-D reference object of

*Car*2.

### 3C. Correlation-Based Recognition of 3-D Volumetric Target Objects

*g*and then with each picked up EIA, a set of reference POIs are reconstructed along the output plane by using the CIIR algorithm. This group of reconstructed reference POIs is used for the correlations with the target POIs.

*T*and

*S*are the POIs for the target and reference object image, respectively.

*Car*2 was originally located at

*Car*2 might be different from the

*Car*2 image embedded in the reconstructed target POIs at all output planes, which finally results in a deduction of cross-correlation values between them.

*Car*2 was located at

*Car*2 is captured at the pickup plane of

*Car*2 become theoretically identical to each other.

*Car*1,

*Car*2, and

*Car*3 is used as the reference object and when the target objects

*Car*1,

*Car*2, and

*Car*3 are assumed to be located at distances of 18, 21, and

*Car*1,

*Car*2, and

*Car*3 are found to be located at the distances of 21, 27, and

*Car*1,

*Car*2, and

*Car*3 were finally found to be

## 4. Conclusion

1. | K. Iizuka, “Welcome to the wonderful world of 3D:
Introduction, principles and history,” Opt.
Photon. News |

2. | S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Performance analysis of stereoscopic
three-dimensional projection display systems,”
3D Res. |

3. | S.-C. Kim, P. Sukhbat, and E.-S. Kim, “Generation of
three- dimensional integral
images from a holographic pattern of 3-D objects,”
Appl. Opt. |

4. | S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Effective generation of digital holograms of
3-D objects using a novel look-up table method,”
Appl. Opt. |

5. | T.-C. Poon and T. Kim, “Optical image recognition of
three- dimensional
objects,” Appl. Opt. |

6. | B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use
of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. |

7. | Y. Frauel, E. Tajahuerce, M. A. Castro, and B. Javidi, “Distortion-tolerant three-dimensional object
recognition with digital holography,” Appl.
Opt. |

8. | A. Pu, R. Denkewalter, and D. Psaltis, “Real-time vehicle
navigation using a
holographic memory,” Opt. Eng. |

9. | J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional electro-optical
correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

10. | J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional joint transform
correlator,” Appl. Opt. |

11. | O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, “Real-time
three- dimensional object
recognition with multiple perspectives imaging,”
Appl. Opt. |

12. | Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, “Digital three-dimensional image correlation
by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging,”
Appl. Opt. |

13. | S. Kishk and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object sensing and
recognition using time multiplexed computational integral
imaging,” Opt. Express |

14. | J. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a
sub-image array,” Opt. Express |

15. | B. Javidi, R. Ronce-Diaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded
objects by using computational integral imaging,”
Opt. Lett. |

16. | A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing,
visualization, andprocessing using integral imaging,” Proc.
IEEE |

17. | Y. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent researches based on integral imaging
display method,” 3D Res. |

18. | F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on
integral photography,” Opt. Eng. |

19. | B. Lee, S. Y. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park,
“Three- dimensional
display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image
planes,” Opt. Lett. |

20. | J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of
three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary
micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. |

21. | D.-H. Shin, B.-H. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multidirectional curved integral imaging with
large depth by additional use of a large-aperture
lens,” Appl. Opt. |

22. | H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional
imag ing with
digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. |

23. | S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional
vol umetric
object reconstruction using computational integral
imaging,” Opt. Express |

24. | S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object reconstruction
using computational integral imaging with time
multiplexing,” Opt. Express |

25. | D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of
three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet
array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. |

26. | H. Yoo and D.-H. Shin, “Improved analysis on the signal property of
computational integral imaging system,” Opt.
Express |

27. | D.-H. Shin and H. Yoo, “Scale-variant magnification for computational
integral imaging and its application to 3D object
correlator,” Opt. Express |

28. | D.-C. Hwang, K.-J. Lee, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Extraction of location coordinates of 3-D
objects from computationally reconstructed integral images basing on a
blur metric,” Opt. Express |

29. | G. Li, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Performance-enhanced 3-D object recognition
by use of computational integral imaging with depth data of the
picked-up elemental images,” Jpn. J. Appl.
Phys. |

30. | K.-J. Lee, D.-C. Hwang, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim,
“Blur- metric-based
resolution enhancement of computationally reconstructed integral
images,” Appl. Opt. |

**OCIS Codes**

(100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing

(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition

(100.3008) Image processing : Image recognition, algorithms and filters

**History**

Original Manuscript: July 2, 2009

Revised Manuscript: September 17, 2009

Manuscript Accepted: September 18, 2009

Published: October 9, 2009

**Virtual Issues**

Digital Holography and 3-D Imaging: Interactive Science Publishing (2009) *Applied Optics*

**Citation**

Seung-Cheol Kim, Seok-Chan Park, and Eun-Soo Kim, "Computational integral-imaging reconstruction-based 3-D volumetric target object recognition by using a 3-D reference object," Appl. Opt. **48**, H95-H104 (2009)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-48-34-H95

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### References

- K. Iizuka, “Welcome to the wonderful world of 3D: Introduction, principles and history,” Opt. Photon. News 17 (7), 42-51(2006). [CrossRef]
- S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Performance analysis of stereoscopic three-dimensional projection display systems,” 3D Res. 1, 010101 (2009).
- S.-C. Kim, P. Sukhbat, and E.-S. Kim, “Generation of three-dimensional integral images from a holographic pattern of 3-D objects,” Appl. Opt. 47, 3901-3908 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S.-C. Kim and E.-S. Kim, “Effective generation of digital holograms of 3-D objects using a novel look-up table method,” Appl. Opt. 47, D55-D62 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T.-C. Poon and T. Kim, “Optical image recognition of three-dimensional objects,” Appl. Opt. 38, 370-381 (1999). [CrossRef]
- B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 610-612(2000). [CrossRef]
- Y. Frauel, E. Tajahuerce, M. A. Castro, and B. Javidi, “Distortion-tolerant three-dimensional object recognition with digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3887-3893 (2001). [CrossRef]
- A. Pu, R. Denkewalter, and D. Psaltis, “Real-time vehicle navigation using a holographic memory,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2737-2746 (1997). [CrossRef]
- J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional electro-optical correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 430-436 (1998). [CrossRef]
- J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7538-7544 (1998). [CrossRef]
- O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, “Real-time three-dimensional object recognition with multiple perspectives imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3318-3325 (2001). [CrossRef]
- Y. Frauel and B. Javidi, “Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5488-5496 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. Kishk and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 11, 3528-3541 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array,” Opt. Express 13, 5116-5126(2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. Javidi, R. Ronce-Diaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1106-1108 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591-607 (2006). [CrossRef]
- Y. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent researches based on integral imaging display method,” 3D Res. 1, 010102 (2009).
- F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1072-1077 (1999). [CrossRef]
- B. Lee, S. Y. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1481-1482(2001). [CrossRef]
- J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324-326 (2002). [CrossRef]
- D.-H. Shin, B.-H. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Multidirectional curved integral imaging with large depth by additional use of a large-aperture lens,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7375-7381 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 157-159(2001). [CrossRef]
- S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12, 483-491 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object reconstruction using computational integral imaging with time multiplexing,” Opt. Express 12, 4579-4588 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D.-H. Shin, E.-S. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction technique of three-dimensional object in integral imaging using a lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016-8018(2005). [CrossRef]
- H. Yoo and D.-H. Shin, “Improved analysis on the signal property of computational integral imaging system,” Opt. Express 15, 14107-14114 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D.-H. Shin and H. Yoo, “Scale-variant magnification for computational integral imaging and its application to 3D object correlator,” Opt. Express 16, 8855-8867 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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