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Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2014
  • pp: 2828–2832
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Passively mode-locked fiber laser by using monolayer chemical vapor deposition of graphene on D-shaped fiber

Tao Chen, Changrui Liao, D. N. Wang, and Yiping Wang  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 13, pp. 2828-2832 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.53.002828


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Abstract

We demonstrate a monolayer graphene saturable absorber (SA) based on D-shaped fiber for operation of the mode-locked fiber laser. The monolayer graphene is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Cu substrate and transferred onto the polymer, and then covered with D-shaped fiber, which allows light–graphene interaction via the evanescent field of the fiber. Due to the side-coupled interaction, the length of graphene is long enough to avoid optical power-induced thermal damage. Using such a graphene-based SA, stable mode-locked solitons with 4.5 nm spectral bandwidth and 713 fs pulsewidth at the 1563 nm wavelength have been obtained under 280 mW pump power. The influence of total cavity dispersion on the optical spectrum and pulse is also investigated by adding different lengths of single-mode fiber in the laser cavity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Graphene exhibits outstanding optical properties, such as ultrafast recovery time, broad operation bandwidth, and nonlinear optical response [1

1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, graphene has attracted huge interest in the development of passively mode-locked fiber lasers owing to its excellently saturable absorption feature [2

2. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]

15

15. Q. Sheng, M. Feng, W. Xin, T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and J. Tian, “Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber,” Opt. Express 21, 14859–14866 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. To fabricate the graphene-based saturable absorber (SA), several methods have been developed. The first one is transferring the atomic-layer graphene onto a fiber ferrule to form a SA, and the graphene materials can be obtained from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthetical graphene on SiO2/Si substrates with Ni films [16

16. Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Shen, “Polarization rotation vector solitons in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 27283–27289 (2012). [CrossRef]

18

18. J. Du, S. Zhang, H. Li, Y. Meng, X. Li, and Y. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012). [CrossRef]

], mechanical exfoliation of graphene from bulk graphite [19

19. Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010). [CrossRef]

,20

20. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2166–2168 (2012). [CrossRef]

], self-assembled graphene membrane [21

21. L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1790–1792 (2011). [CrossRef]

], graphene–PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) composite [22

22. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010). [CrossRef]

], etc. The second method is filling the hollow-core photonic crystal with few-layered graphene oxide solution [23

23. Z. B. Liu, X. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3024–3026 (2011). [CrossRef]

], filling the hollow optical fiber with graphene/PVA composite [24

24. S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D. I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 20, 5652–5657 (2012). [CrossRef]

], and syphoning the graphene nanoparticles into a multicore photonic crystal fiber (PCF) [25

25. Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, J. H. Liou, C. P. Yu, and G. R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16763–16776 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. The third technique is employing the evanescent field interaction of the propagating light with the graphene covered on the surface of side-polished D-shaped fiber [26

26. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010). [CrossRef]

], microfiber [27

27. X. He, Z. B. Liu, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, C. Liao, and X. Zhao, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide on microfiber for ultra-wide-band doublet pulse generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 984–989 (2012). [CrossRef]

], and tapered fiber [28

28. J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1295–1305 (2012).

]. In such a scheme, the interaction length of the light beam with graphene is adjustable, which can essentially overcome the difficulty of optical power-induced thermal damage. When compared with the microfiber and tapered fiber, the D-shaped fiber can be tightly attached by graphene film, and is robust and convenient for packaging. Very recently, mode-locked fiber lasers based on the graphene oxide-deposited D-shaped fiber were demonstrated for producing femtosecond pulses [29

29. M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 20062–20072 (2013). [CrossRef]

,30

30. J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. Song, and J. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035103 (2013). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, the D-shaped fiber covered by polymer-supported monolayer graphene film is used as the SA. Such a structure enables strong light–graphene interaction along the fiber length, and as a result, mode-locked femtosecond laser pulses of 713fs with repetition rate of 11.53 MHz can be obtained under 280 mW pump power.

2. Fabrication and Polarization Characterization of Saturable Absorber

The side-polished fiber device for preparing D-shaped fiber is shown in Fig. 1(a). Here, the single-mode fiber (SMF) is burnished by the grinding wheel, and then is burned using the electrode discharge to improve the smoothness. The resulting fiber is viewed by using a Nikon Eclipse 80i microscope with 20× objective lens. From the side view of the right picture, the fiber core is near the edge and the thickness is 72μm. The vertical view of the right picture is the photo of the polished surface. The total D-shaped fiber is 2 cm in length, and its minimum insertion loss and polarization-dependent loss (PDL) are measured to be 1.3 and 0.5 dB at the wavelength of 1560 nm, respectively. Figure 1(b) illustrates the schematic structure of the graphene-based SA. The monolayer graphene film is directly synthesized by the CVD method on polycrystalline Cu substrate. The polymer clad resin (EFiRON, PC-373, refractive index of 1.376) is uniformly adhered to the graphene film on a Cu substrate without an air bubble in it, and is then cured by ultraviolet (UV) light. After 24 h, the polymer/graphene/Cu layers are soaked with 0.05mg/mlFeCl3 solution to remove the Cu layer. Then the ferric icon is washed away from polymer/graphene layers using distilled water. The length of the graphene is 10mm. Finally, after cleaning the polished surface of the D-shaped fiber with 99.5% propyl alcohol, the polymer-supported monolayer graphene film is transferred onto the flat surface of the D-shaped fiber for interaction with the evanescent field. Such a structure is used as the graphene-based SA in our fiber laser system. In addition, it should be noted that the thickness of D-shaped fiber should be between 67 μm (on top of fiber core) and 77 μm, in order to obtain a low loss and strong evanescent field simultaneously. Considering the interaction length of 10mm of graphene, the 72 μm thickness of D-shaped fiber is appropriate for our structure.

Fig. 1. (a) D-shaped fiber preparation through side-polished fiber device; the right pictures are the side and vertical views of the end product. (b) Schematic structure of the graphene-based SA; the right schematic diagram is the cross section.

3. Experimental Setup

The experimental setup of the proposed graphene-based passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with a ring cavity configuration is presented in Fig. 2. A 1.3 m high-concentration EDF (OFS EDF-80) is used as the gain medium, pumped by a 1480 nm high-power laser diode (LD, Anritsu AF4B150FA75L) via a 1480/1550nm wavelength division multiplexer (WDM) coupler. A polarization-independent isolator is used to force the unidirectional operation of the ring, and an intracavity PC is used to adjust the linear cavity birefringence. The graphene-based SA is inserted in the cavity between the PC and the optical coupler. The SMF is added in the cavity to change the total cavity dispersions. The PDLs of the 9010 fiber coupler, WDM, and optical isolator are less than 0.1 dB. The generated mode-locked pulses are directed out by the optical coupler, and then pass through a 3 dB coupler. The pulses are simultaneously monitored by an optical spectrum analyzer (ANDO AQ 6319) with 0.01 nm resolution and a high-speed photodetector (New-focus 1414, 25 GHz) connected to an oscilloscope (Tektronix, TPS 2024). The radio frequency (RF) spectrum of the passively mode-locked laser output is measured by use of the same photodetector connected to a real-time spectrum analyzer (Tektronix RSA 3303A, 3 GHz). The pulse profile is measured by a second harmonic generation (SHG) autocorrelator (FEMTOCHROME FR-103XL, resolution <5fs) and recorded by the Tektronix oscilloscope.

Fig. 2. Experimental setup of the graphene mode-locking fiber laser.

4. Results and Discussion

Group velocity dispersion (GVD) plays an important role in maintaining the mode-locked fiber laser stability. The GVD of the EDF and the SMF used in the system is 46.25ps/nm/km and 18ps/nm/km at the wavelength of 1560 nm, respectively. We first add 5 m SMF in the laser cavity, and the total laser cavity length is 14.3m. By ignoring the dispersion of the short D-shaped fiber, the round-trip dispersion of the whole cavity is 0.222ps2. The continuous-wave (CW) operation pump threshold of the laser is 40mW. Owing to the asymmetry of D-shaped fiber—it is well known that graphene or graphene oxide-deposited D-shaped fibers exhibit non-negligible PDL [29

29. M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 20062–20072 (2013). [CrossRef]

,33

33. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011). [CrossRef]

]—the intracavity pulse loss is changed for different pulse polarization states in graphene-based SA [15

15. Q. Sheng, M. Feng, W. Xin, T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and J. Tian, “Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber,” Opt. Express 21, 14859–14866 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. Increasing the pump power to 80 mW and slightly tuning the PC, the fiber laser can operate in states such as CW, stable Q-switching, Q-switched mode-locking, and CW mode-locking [30

30. J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. Song, and J. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035103 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. Here, we mainly investigate the laser in the steadily mode-locked state. Once the laser is in mode-locking, the operation can be maintained for a long time. During the operation, the pump power may be increased to 300 mW, until multipulse generation is observed. Under 280 mW pump power, the pulse train of the output solitons is shown in Fig. 3(a). The laser pulse train has a period of 86.7 ns, which matches well with the cavity round-trip time and indicates that the laser is in the passive mode-locked regime. Figure 3(b) shows the optical spectrum of the output. The central wavelength is 1563 nm, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) bandwidth is 4.5 nm. The Kelly sidebands, resulting from the intracavity periodical perturbation, clearly appear with discrete and well-defined peaks in the optical spectrum. For chirp-free soliton pulses, the mth order of the Kelly sideband position relative to the center wavelength is given by [29

29. M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 20062–20072 (2013). [CrossRef]

]
Δλ=2ln(1+2)λ22πcτ4mπ|Lβ2|(τ2ln(1+2))21,
(1)
where λ is the center wavelength, τ is the temporal FWHM value of the pulses, L is the cavity length, β2 is the cavity dispersion parameter, and the total cavity dispersion |Lβ2| is 0.222ps2. The Δλ for the first-order Kelly sideband is 7.5 nm in Fig. 3(b), and the transform-limited τ is calculated to be 0.4ps by using Eq. (1).

Fig. 3. Under 280 mW EDF pump power, (a) oscilloscope trace of pulse train and (b) optical spectrum of output pulse of mode-locked fiber laser.

Figure 4(a) depicts the recorded AC trace of the laser pulses. The FWHM value of the pulses is 1.1ps. Assuming a Sech2 pulse profile, its decorrelation factor is 0.648, and the actual pulsewidth is 713fs. This measured τ is different from the theoretical value (0.4ps), and the time-bandwidth product of the pulses is 0.395, indicating that the soliton pulses are small chirped. The measured RF results are shown in Fig. 4(b). The fundamental peak is located at the repetition rate of 11.53 MHz, with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 60 dB. It is found that there is a pedestal around the peak; it may result from the influence of vibration or thermal variations on the length of the fiber oscillator. Such a pedestal could be removed by using temperature and vibration control, or the phase-locking technique. The average output power is 10.5dBm, with pulse energy 1nJ. The inset of Fig. 4(b) reveals the higher order of the harmonic RF spectrum, in which a high SNR can also be observed. This indicates the good stability and high reliability of our system.

Fig. 4. (a) Autocorrelation traces of the solitons. (b) Fundamental RF spectrum of mode-locked laser; the inset is the RF spectrum of the high-order harmonic pulse.

In order to investigate the dependence of pulses and net cavity dispersion, the length of SMF is varied while other equipment is unchanged. When the net cavity dispersion is small, the polarization controller needs to be fine tuned to start the mode locking. Figure 5 shows the optical spectra of our pulses with different SMF lengths, and the obvious sideband and narrow FWHM are obtained with larger dispersion. Table 1 summarizes the relationship between the total cavity dispersion and the laser characteristics including four groups of data. When the total dispersion is varied from 0.107 to 0.560ps2, the pulsewidth of the generated pulses is between 0.668 and 1.119 ps at a repetition rate of 16.47–6.66 MHz.

Fig. 5. Optical spectra of output pulse of mode-locked fiber laser with different lengths of added SMF under 280 mW EDF pump power.

Table 1. Optical Parameters of Mode-Locked Fiber Laser When Adding Different Lengths of SMF

table-icon
View This Table

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, a femtosecond passively mode-locked fiber laser based on D-shaped fiber and monolayer graphene has been demonstrated. The method of transferring polymer-supported monolayer graphene film onto the flat surface of the D-shaped fiber is simple and effective. By varying the length of SMF, the total dispersion can be changed from 0.107 to 0.560ps2. The corresponding pulsewidths of 0.668–1.119 ps were obtained at a repetition rate of 16.47–6.66 MHz. The easy fabrication and good stability of our system will facilitate potential applications of monolayer graphene in ultrafast photonics.

The authors are pleased to acknowledge support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University research grants 4-ZZE6 and G-YM19.

References

1.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009). [CrossRef]

4.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 591–596 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283, 3334–3338 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, and K. M. Abramski, “Fundamental and harmonic mode-locking in erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 3174–3178 (2012). [CrossRef]

10.

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G. R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20, 2460–2465 (2012). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285, 4466–4469 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

W. Cao, H. Wang, A. Luo, Z. Luo, and W. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50  nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 54–58 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

B. Fu, L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, and C. Yang, “Passive harmonic mode locking in erbium-doped fiber laser with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 286, 304–308 (2013). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. F. Song, L. Li, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Vector multi-soliton operation and interaction in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 10010–10018 (2013). [CrossRef]

15.

Q. Sheng, M. Feng, W. Xin, T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and J. Tian, “Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber,” Opt. Express 21, 14859–14866 (2013). [CrossRef]

16.

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Shen, “Polarization rotation vector solitons in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 27283–27289 (2012). [CrossRef]

17.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012). [CrossRef]

18.

J. Du, S. Zhang, H. Li, Y. Meng, X. Li, and Y. Hao, “L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 896–900 (2012). [CrossRef]

19.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211102 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Scalar soliton generation in all-polarization-maintaining, graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2166–2168 (2012). [CrossRef]

21.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1790–1792 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

Z. B. Liu, X. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3024–3026 (2011). [CrossRef]

24.

S. Y. Choi, D. K. Cho, Y.-W. Song, K. Oh, K. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D. I. Yeom, “Graphene-filled hollow optical fiber saturable absorber for efficient soliton fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 20, 5652–5657 (2012). [CrossRef]

25.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, J. H. Liou, C. P. Yu, and G. R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 16763–16776 (2013). [CrossRef]

26.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051122 (2010). [CrossRef]

27.

X. He, Z. B. Liu, D. N. Wang, M. Yang, C. Liao, and X. Zhao, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide on microfiber for ultra-wide-band doublet pulse generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 984–989 (2012). [CrossRef]

28.

J. Wang, Z. Luo, M. Zhou, C. Ye, H. Fu, Z. Cai, H. Cheng, H. Xu, and W. Qi, “Evanescent-light deposition of graphene onto tapered fibers for passive Q-switch and mode-locker,” IEEE Photon. J. 4, 1295–1305 (2012).

29.

M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 20062–20072 (2013). [CrossRef]

30.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. Song, and J. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 035103 (2013). [CrossRef]

31.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011). [CrossRef]

32.

X. He, Z. Liu, and D. N. Wang, “Wavelength-tunable, passively mode-locked fiber laser based on graphene and chirped fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2394–2396 (2012). [CrossRef]

33.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
(320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 19, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 6, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 27, 2014
Published: April 24, 2014

Citation
Tao Chen, Changrui Liao, D. N. Wang, and Yiping Wang, "Passively mode-locked fiber laser by using monolayer chemical vapor deposition of graphene on D-shaped fiber," Appl. Opt. 53, 2828-2832 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-53-13-2828


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References

  1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef]
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