OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Editor: Joseph N. Mait
  • Vol. 53, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2014
  • pp: 2866–2869
« Show journal navigation

Coherent broadband light generation with a double-path configuration

Kai Wang, Miaochan Zhi, Xia Hua, James Strohaber, and Alexei V. Sokolov  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 13, pp. 2866-2869 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.53.002866


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (363 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We generate broadband light by focusing two femtosecond pulses into a Raman-active crystal. By reflecting Raman sideband beams together with the two driving beams back to the same crystal (with a slight spatial offset), we generate sidebands covering a broader spectral range, compared to a single pass. In this novel double-path configuration, multiple Raman sideband beams interact with each other since the phase-matching condition is automatically fulfilled. This scheme enables an enhanced cascaded coherent anti-Stokes scattering process and also doubles the interaction length, thus it allows one to use relatively weak energy pump pulses and thereby avoid optical damage.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Broadband radiation is one of the essential requirements for generating ultrashort optical pulses, which are used in a diverse range of fields, such as optical coherence tomography [1

1. I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001). [CrossRef]

], frequency metrology [2

2. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800  nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000). [CrossRef]

,3

3. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000). [CrossRef]

], fluorescence lifetime imaging [4

4. C. Dunsby, P. M. P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, D. S. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, N. Galletly, F. McCann, B. Treanor, B. Onfelt, D. M. Davis, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, “An electronically tunable ultrafast laser source applied to fluorescence imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy,” J. Phys. D 37, 3296–3303 (2004). [CrossRef]

], optical communications [5

5. H. Takara, T. Ohara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and T. Morioka, “Field demonstration of over 1000-channel DWDM transmission with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 41, 270–271 (2005). [CrossRef]

], and gas sensing [6

6. H. Delbarre and M. Tassou, “Atmospheric gas trace detection with ultrashort pulses or white light continuum,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2000), p. CWF104.

,7

7. S. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 799–802 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Spectral broadening can be accomplished by propagating an initial short optical pulse through a medium with strong nonlinearity. Many techniques are used to broaden the spectrum of a laser pulse. For example, self-phase modulation (SPM) in a photonic crystal fiber is a common technique to achieve a broad spectrum, and such fibers have been used to generate a supercontinuum [8

8. J. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, an octave-wide spectrum was produced on a chip-scale integrated device by using a micro-resonator [9

9. T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 6029, 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. High harmonic generation has extended the spectrum to the soft x-ray regime. Nowadays it is the main technique for attosecond optical pulse generation [10

10. G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 655–663 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

Molecular modulation is another ultrashort pulse generation technique, which has attracted great interest in the last two decades [11

11. S. Baker, I. A. Walmsley, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Femtosecond to attosecond light pulses from a molecular modulator,” Nat. Photonics 5, 664–671 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. This technique relies on adiabatic preparation of near-maximal molecular coherence. The resultant coherent molecular motion leads to the generation of a broad spectrum of coherent Raman sidebands [12

12. A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B 5, R1–R26 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. It was first accomplished in gas with nanosecond lasers [13

13. S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, “Subfemtosecond pulse generation by molecular modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894 (1998). [CrossRef]

] and has been extended to the femtosecond domain using Raman-active crystals [14

14. M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman-active crystal driven by two color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and to continuous wave domain using an optical cavity filled with gas [15

15. J. T. Green, D. E. Sikes, and D. D. Yavuz, “Continuous-wave high-power rotational Raman generation in molecular deuterium,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2563–2565 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. With assistance of a pulse shaper, synthesis of an arbitrary ultrashort waveform using Raman sidebands has been demonstrated [16

16. H. S. Chan, Z. M. Hsieh, W. H. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. K. Lee, C. J. Lai, R. P. Pan, and L. H. Peng, “Synthesis and measurement of ultrafast waveforms from five discrete optical harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011). [CrossRef]

,17

17. M. Zhi, K. Wang, X. Hua, and A. V. Sokolov, “Pulse-shaper-assisted phase control of a coherent broadband spectrum of Raman sidebands,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4032–4034 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we show a scheme that allows further broadening of the coherent Raman spectrum generated from a crystal in a double-path interaction scheme. This scheme allows efficient multibeam interaction as the phase-matching conditions among multibeams are automatically fulfilled. When the phases among the sidebands are properly adjusted, the spectrum can be broadened through the second path with relatively low input pulse energy.

2. Experiment

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. We used a Ti:Sapphire amplifier, which generated 40 fs pulses at 1 KHz, and having a central wavelength of 806 nm. The beam was divided into two by a beam splitter. About 40% of the beam was used as pump beam, and the rest was used to pump an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). The second harmonic of the idler beam generated from the OPA with a center wavelength of 870 nm was then used as the Stokes beam. [Following coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) convention, we denote the shorter 806 nm wavelength beam as pump and the long wavelength 870 nm as the Stokes beam.] The pump and Stokes beams with the same polarization were crossed in the medium at an optimal angle of 3.5° in accordance with a phase matching calculation considering high-order Raman sidebands generation. In the experiment, we used a piece of glass (microscope slide) and PbWO4 for sideband generation. The first high-frequency sideband emerging from pump beam is labeled as anti-Stokes one (AS1) and the second one is labeled as anti-Stokes two (AS2), etc. In the experimental schematics of Fig. 1, the ASs sidebands are shown by yellow, green, and blue arrows to the left of the pump beam.

Fig. 1. Schematics of the experimental setup. Broadband sidebands are first generated by focusing two femtosecond pulses in a solid. The Raman sidebands are reflected back by two spherical mirrors with a focal length of f=10cm.

The generation of coherent Raman sidebands in PbWO4 has been well studied in [14

14. M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman-active crystal driven by two color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. We used 500 μm thick Raman crystal PbWO4. In our experiment, the pump power was around 16 mW and the Stokes was around 1 mW. After the crystal, the pump and Stokes together were around 14 mW. The coherent broadband Raman sidebands were generated at different output angles, determined by phase-matching conditions. The pump beam has a diameter of 400 μm at the focus and the Stokes beam has a diameter of 100 μm at the focus. The maximum intensities of both pump and Stokes were around 2.5×1011W/cm2. In order to optimize the sideband generation, we adjusted the beam size and the power, and therefore the actual intensity may be slightly different. To further broaden the spectrum, one may intuitively want to increase the input pulse energy. However, the maximum allowable pulse energy should be below the onset of strong SPM of the crystal [14

14. M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman-active crystal driven by two color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. On the other hand, increasing the interaction length by increasing the thickness of the crystal would not work because we use noncollinear geometry, thus it has limited interaction length. Therefore we used the generated sidebands to assist the cascaded coherent Raman process to broaden the spectrum thus avoiding the high input pulse energy. This is equivalent to increase the interaction length when we properly adjust the sideband spectral phases. Specifically, we used concave spherical mirrors to reflect the beams back to the same crystal. In this configuration, only when the distance between the crystal and the spherical mirror is twice of the focal length of the spherical mirror, the beams are re-focused back to the same spot on the crystal. This is known as a 2f2f setup. Moreover, the angles between the sideband beams in the second path, which is the reflection path, are the same as those in the first path; therefore phase-matching is automatically fulfilled. Consequently, the nonlinear Raman interaction between the beams is maximized.

In our experiment, we used 2 in. spherical mirrors of focal length 10 cm to reflect the sidebands. Two spherical mirrors were used since a single mirror was not able to cover more than five sidebands. An advantage of two spherical mirrors was that the relative spectral phases of the beams could be independently adjusted. The spherical mirrors were put about 20 cm away from the crystal. The beams were re-focused back to the crystal with an offset, which was about 500 μm in the experiment. This offset is large enough to separate the incident beams from the reflected beams to avoid interaction between the beams while preserving the phase-matching condition. The nonlinear interactions between Raman sidebands depend on the spectral phases between the beams, which determine whether there is generation or elimination of new Raman sidebands [18

18. A. V. Sokolov, D. D. Yavuz, D. R. Walker, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Light modulation at molecular frequencies,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051801 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. A translation stage was used to finely adjust the time delay of the sidebands. This enabled us to adjust the relative spectral phases among these sidebands. In principle, we could optimize the cascaded Raman process by adjusting the spectral phase of each individual sideband separately. However, in our experiments, we used only one mirror to adjust the spectral phases of several sidebands together, and we were still able to find a position where the generation of new sidebands was enhanced.

In Fig. 2, we show photographs of the cross sections of the beams after the second path. This is an experimental demonstration for the spectral broadening. With only one mirror reflecting back the pump, S1 and AS1, we generated the new beams with the same frequencies as AS2–AS7 in the second path. If we only reflected back AS6–AS12, new sidebands, which have the same frequencies as AS5, AS13, and AS14, were generated due to the interaction between AS6–AS12. When both the sidebands AS6 and AS12 and the pump and Stokes were reflected to the same spot by two mirrors, with careful alignment, the beams interacted with each other on the crystal, and seven new beams were generated Fig. 2(c). These beams were measured to have the same peak frequencies as the AS13–AS19, respectively. By fine adjustment of the relative sideband spectral phases, i.e., by fine adjustment of the time delay, we observed that at certain positions, the intensities of the new sidebands were maximized as shown in Fig. 2. This scenario is effectively equivalent to increasing the interaction length. The propagation of the coherent Raman sidebands in Raman medium has been studied in [12

12. A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B 5, R1–R26 (2003). [CrossRef]

], and the details of the effect of the spectral phases for the cascaded Raman process will be discussed elsewhere [19

19. K. Wang, M. Zhi, X. Hua, and A. V. Sokolov, “A scheme allowing synthesis and characterization of ultrafast waveforms using coherent Raman sidebands, prepared,” in preparation.

].

Fig. 2. Digital photograph of the Raman generation from PbWO4 in the double-path configuration. (a) The photo when only pump, Stokes, S1 and AS1 are reflected back with one mirror. S1 is not shown in the figure because it is out of the spectral range of the camera. New AS2–AS7 are generated when the other beams overlap and in phase. (b) Photo when AS6–AS12 sidebands are reflected back to the crystal with the second mirror. AS2–AS5 and sidebands higher than the 13th order are not reflected back. The small spots outside the shadow of the mirror are the new beams generated by AS6–AS12. (c) Photo when all the beams including pump, stokes, AS1, S1, and AS6–AS12 are reflected back to the crystal with two mirrors and interact with each other and thereby new beams are generated. The blueshifted sidebands, which have the same peak frequencies as AS13–AS18, are generated due to the nonlinear interaction. An infrared card is used here to help show S1. (d) Energy-level schematics of the cascaded coherent anti-Stokes Raman process. |a> and |b> are the vibrational states, driven by the pump and the Stokes. The peak frequency ωn of sideband ASn is equal to ωp+nωab; here ωp is the peak frequency of the pump and ωab is the vibrational frequency.

A spectrometer (Ocean Optics, USB 2000) was used to monitor the spectral change of the newly generated sidebands with only one mirror reflecting back the beams. The spectrum of AS6 and AS7 is shown in Fig. 3 as an example. Pump and Stokes beams were reflected back into the crystal to generate sidebands up to seven orders. When we reflected back AS1 together with the pump and Stokes, the intensities of AS6 and AS7 were enhanced by one order. Focusing the pump, Stokes, AS1, AS2, and AS3 beams lead to almost one-and-a-half-fold increase of AS6 and AS7 intensity.

Fig. 3. Spectrum of sideband AS6 (a) and AS7 (b) using one spherical mirror reflecting beams (pump, Stokes, AS1 AS2, and AS3) back to PbWO4. When pump, Stokes, and AS1 are reflected back, the intensity of AS6 and AS7 (red) are close to one-fold stronger than that when only pump and Stokes are reflected back (green). When AS1, AS2, AS3, pump, and Stokes are all reflected back, the intensity of AS6 and AS7 (black) are increased by about one-and-a-half fold.

In addition to the Raman crystal, we also used a 150 μm glass (BK7) to see whether this scheme works with nonresonant cascaded four-wave-mixing (CFWM), which is another technique with the potential of ultrashort pulse generation, especially in the UV range [20

20. T. Kobayashi, J. Liu, and Y. Kida, “Generation and optimization of femtosecond pulses by four-wave mixing process,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quant. Electron. 18, 54–65 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. CFWM has been extensively studied in the last two decades in parallel with the molecular modulation technique [20

20. T. Kobayashi, J. Liu, and Y. Kida, “Generation and optimization of femtosecond pulses by four-wave mixing process,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quant. Electron. 18, 54–65 (2012). [CrossRef]

,21

21. R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonca, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave-mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063838 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. A sub-10-fs deep-ultraviolet pulse has been generated using CFWM in gaseous media [22

22. Y. Kida, J. Liu, and T. Kobayashi, “Sub-10-fs deep-ultraviolet light source with stable power and spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6403–6410 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Coherent Raman sidebands and CFWM usually coexist in the Raman process [14

14. M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman-active crystal driven by two color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Similar to Raman crystal, we found that when the generated beams and the residual of pump and Stokes were all reflected back and overlapped again at the glass spatiotemporally, the spectrum was noticeably broadened, as shown in Fig. 4 [Since CFWM is similar to CARS in our experiments, we follow the CARS convention and denote the shorter 806 nm wavelength beam as pump, the long wavelength 870 nm as the Stokkes beam, and the nth sidebands in blueshifted as ASn…]. The insets of Fig. 4 are photos of the sidebands on a white paper screen taken by a camera. Figure 4(a) shows the sidebands generated in the first path, and Fig. 4(b) shows the sidebands after the second path. In Fig. 4(b), the blueshifted light beyond AS4 is generated by the nonlinear interaction between the sidebands and the pump and Stokes beams in the second path. The spectral measurement close to 400 nm confirmed that the spectrum extended in to the UV region and was close to the limit of transmission of the glass. Therefore the reflection scheme worked well for CFWM.

Fig. 4. Photo and spectrum of sidebands generated in a 150 μm thick glass. Inset (a) Photo of the pump and Stokes beam and the generated CFWM sidebands in the first path. Inset (b) Photo of the pump, Stokes, and all the generated CFWM sidebands when the beams in figure (a) are reflected back to the glass with one spherical mirror. The spectrum is shown at around 400 nm when pump, Stokes, and other sidebands are reflected back to the glass. Line 1 is the spectrum when pump and Stokes in (a) are reflected back to the glass. Line 2 is the spectrum when pump, Stokes, and AS 1 are reflected back to the glass. Line 3 is the spectrum when all the beams in (a) are reflected back to the glass.

3. Conclusion

In this paper, we showed that the spectrum of coherent Raman sidebands can be extended with a reflection scheme for enhanced cascaded CARS process with double-path interaction. This reflection scheme preserved the phase-matching condition automatically, which maximizes the interaction. Although the comparison of cascaded CARS and CFWM was beyond the scope of this paper, we still showed that this configuration would also work for CFWM.

This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (grant no. PHY-1307153) and the Welch Foundation (grant no. A1547).

References

1.

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001). [CrossRef]

2.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800  nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

C. Dunsby, P. M. P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, D. S. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, N. Galletly, F. McCann, B. Treanor, B. Onfelt, D. M. Davis, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, “An electronically tunable ultrafast laser source applied to fluorescence imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy,” J. Phys. D 37, 3296–3303 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and T. Morioka, “Field demonstration of over 1000-channel DWDM transmission with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 41, 270–271 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Delbarre and M. Tassou, “Atmospheric gas trace detection with ultrashort pulses or white light continuum,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2000), p. CWF104.

7.

S. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 799–802 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 6029, 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 655–663 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

S. Baker, I. A. Walmsley, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Femtosecond to attosecond light pulses from a molecular modulator,” Nat. Photonics 5, 664–671 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B 5, R1–R26 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, “Subfemtosecond pulse generation by molecular modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894 (1998). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman-active crystal driven by two color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

J. T. Green, D. E. Sikes, and D. D. Yavuz, “Continuous-wave high-power rotational Raman generation in molecular deuterium,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2563–2565 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

H. S. Chan, Z. M. Hsieh, W. H. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. K. Lee, C. J. Lai, R. P. Pan, and L. H. Peng, “Synthesis and measurement of ultrafast waveforms from five discrete optical harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Zhi, K. Wang, X. Hua, and A. V. Sokolov, “Pulse-shaper-assisted phase control of a coherent broadband spectrum of Raman sidebands,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4032–4034 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

A. V. Sokolov, D. D. Yavuz, D. R. Walker, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Light modulation at molecular frequencies,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051801 (2001). [CrossRef]

19.

K. Wang, M. Zhi, X. Hua, and A. V. Sokolov, “A scheme allowing synthesis and characterization of ultrafast waveforms using coherent Raman sidebands, prepared,” in preparation.

20.

T. Kobayashi, J. Liu, and Y. Kida, “Generation and optimization of femtosecond pulses by four-wave mixing process,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quant. Electron. 18, 54–65 (2012). [CrossRef]

21.

R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonca, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave-mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063838 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

Y. Kida, J. Liu, and T. Kobayashi, “Sub-10-fs deep-ultraviolet light source with stable power and spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6403–6410 (2012). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(320.0320) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast optics
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 28, 2014
Revised Manuscript: March 24, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 25, 2014
Published: April 25, 2014

Citation
Kai Wang, Miaochan Zhi, Xia Hua, James Strohaber, and Alexei V. Sokolov, "Coherent broadband light generation with a double-path configuration," Appl. Opt. 53, 2866-2869 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-53-13-2866


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800  nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Dunsby, P. M. P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, D. S. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, N. Galletly, F. McCann, B. Treanor, B. Onfelt, D. M. Davis, M. A. A. Neil, and P. M. W. French, “An electronically tunable ultrafast laser source applied to fluorescence imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy,” J. Phys. D 37, 3296–3303 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Takara, T. Ohara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and T. Morioka, “Field demonstration of over 1000-channel DWDM transmission with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 41, 270–271 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Delbarre and M. Tassou, “Atmospheric gas trace detection with ultrashort pulses or white light continuum,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2000), p. CWF104.
  7. S. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 799–802 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 6029, 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics 5, 655–663 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Baker, I. A. Walmsley, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Femtosecond to attosecond light pulses from a molecular modulator,” Nat. Photonics 5, 664–671 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. A. V. Sokolov and S. E. Harris, “Ultrashort pulse generation by molecular modulation,” J. Opt. B 5, R1–R26 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, “Subfemtosecond pulse generation by molecular modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Zhi and A. V. Sokolov, “Broadband coherent light generation in a Raman-active crystal driven by two color femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2251–2253 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. J. T. Green, D. E. Sikes, and D. D. Yavuz, “Continuous-wave high-power rotational Raman generation in molecular deuterium,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2563–2565 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. H. S. Chan, Z. M. Hsieh, W. H. Liang, A. H. Kung, C. K. Lee, C. J. Lai, R. P. Pan, and L. H. Peng, “Synthesis and measurement of ultrafast waveforms from five discrete optical harmonics,” Science 331, 1165–1168 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Zhi, K. Wang, X. Hua, and A. V. Sokolov, “Pulse-shaper-assisted phase control of a coherent broadband spectrum of Raman sidebands,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4032–4034 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. A. V. Sokolov, D. D. Yavuz, D. R. Walker, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Light modulation at molecular frequencies,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051801 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. K. Wang, M. Zhi, X. Hua, and A. V. Sokolov, “A scheme allowing synthesis and characterization of ultrafast waveforms using coherent Raman sidebands, prepared,” in preparation.
  20. T. Kobayashi, J. Liu, and Y. Kida, “Generation and optimization of femtosecond pulses by four-wave mixing process,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quant. Electron. 18, 54–65 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. R. Weigand, J. T. Mendonca, and H. M. Crespo, “Cascaded nondegenerate four-wave-mixing technique for high-power single-cycle pulse synthesis in the visible and ultraviolet ranges,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063838 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Kida, J. Liu, and T. Kobayashi, “Sub-10-fs deep-ultraviolet light source with stable power and spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6403–6410 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
 
Fig. 4.
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited