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Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

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Early Posting

Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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Articles 1 to 20 of 127 Next Page >>

July


(ODT2014) Design of freeform lens for LED light with high efficiency and uniform illumination

  • Nguyen Doan Anh, Min-Feng Lai, Hsin-Yi Ma, and Hsiao-Yi Lee
  • received 05/01/2014; accepted 07/25/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 211258
  • [full text: PDF (987) KB)]
  • Abstract: A freeform secondary lens is proposed to optimize a LED light. Based on Snell’s law, energy conservation law and Monte Carlo ray tracing algorithm, the surface contour of the freeform lens can be determined according to the requirements of a LED light. The optical experimental results show that the optical efficiency 95.69% can be achieved by the lens, which illumination uniformity 0.317 is higher than the commercial one 0.259. The lens does not need the help of a white ring holder, so the cost of LED light can become effective.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
  • (230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes

Focal length measurement based on the wavefront difference method by a Fizeau interferometer

  • Zhongming Yang, Zhishan Gao, Jiantai Dou, and Xinxing Wang
  • received 05/21/2014; accepted 07/25/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 212360
  • [full text: PDF (967) KB)]
  • Abstract: A method for measuring the focal length of the lens by a Fizeau interferometer is proposed. Based on the Gaussian imaging equation and the longitudinal displacements of the object point and image point, a precise formula for focal length calculation is deduced. The longitudinal displacement of the object points is determined by the wavefront difference method with subnanometer accuracy. An experimental system for focal length measurements is set up to verify the principle. The sources of uncertainty in measurement are discussed. Both the positive and negative lens experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is less than under normal experimental environment.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
  • (120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology

A Simple and Efficient Approach for Restoration of Non-Uniformly Warped Images

  • Kalyan Halder, Murat Tahtali, and Sreenatha Anavatti
  • received 05/30/2014; accepted 07/25/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 212786
  • [full text: PDF (5353) KB)]
  • Abstract: A high accuracy image dewarping method is proposed to restore the image from a non-uniformly warped video sequence degraded by atmospheric turbulence. This approach contains three major steps. First, a non-rigid image registration technique is employed to register all the frames in the sequence to a reference frame and estimate the motion fields. Second, an iterative First Register Then Average And Subtract (iFRTAAS) method is applied to correct the geometric deformations of the warped frames. The third step involves applying a non-local means filter for the compensation of noise and improve the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the restored reference frame. Simulations are carried out by applying the method to synthetic and real-life turbulence degraded videos and by determining various quality metrics. A performance comparison is presented between the proposed method and two earlier methods, which verifies that the proposed method provides significant improvement on the image restoration accuracy.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence
  • (100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
  • (100.3020) Image processing : Image reconstruction-restoration
  • (110.6770) Imaging systems : Telescopes
  • (350.1270) Other areas of optics : Astronomy and astrophysics

Synthetic aperture ladar imaging demonstrations and information at very low return levels

  • Zeb Barber and Jason Dahl
  • received 05/28/2014; accepted 07/25/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 212966
  • [full text: PDF (632) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) imaging demonstrations where the return signal level from the target is near the single photon level per resolved pixel. Scenes consisting of both specular point targets and diffuse reflection, fully speckled, targets are studied. Artificial retro-reflector based phase references and/or phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithms were utilized for compensation of phase errors during the aperture motion. It was found that SAL images could reliably be formed with both methods even when the final max pixel intensity was at the few photon level which means the SNR before azimuth compression is below unity. Mutual information based comparison of SAL images show that average mutual information is reduced when the PGA is utilized for image based phase compensation. The photon information efficiency of SAL and coherent imaging is discussed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.0030) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence and statistical optics
  • (110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
  • (280.3400) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser range finder
  • (280.6730) Remote sensing and sensors : Synthetic aperture radar
  • (110.3055) Imaging systems : Information theoretical analysis

Spiral phase plate based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal for wide visible band applications

  • Shing-Trong Wu and Andy Y.-G. Fuh
  • received 06/20/2014; accepted 07/25/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 213996
  • [full text: PDF (638) KB)]
  • Abstract: This study demonstrates the helical wave fronts via a spiral phase plate (SPP) based on polymer dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs). Because the PDLC is electric tunable, the plate can be used in a wide visible band. In addition, if the probe beam deviates from the center of the sample, some of the lights propagate out of the sectors. We propose some of the application for the results.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.3710) Materials : Liquid crystals
  • (160.5470) Materials : Polymers
  • (050.4865) Diffraction and gratings : Optical vortices

Scalar wave-optical reconstruction of plenoptic camera images

  • André Junker, Tim Stenau, and Karl-Heinz Brenner
  • received 05/15/2014; accepted 07/24/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 211995
  • [full text: PDF (5823) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the reconstruction of plenoptic camera images in a scalar wave-optical framework. Previous publications relating to this topic numerically simulate light propagation on the basis of ray tracing. However, due to continuing miniaturization of hardware components it can be assumed that in combination with low aperture optical systems this technique may not be generally valid. Therefore, we study the differences between ray- and wave-optical object reconstructions of true plenoptic camera images. For this purpose we present a wave-optical reconstruction algorithm, which can be run on a regular computer. Our findings show that a wave-optical treatment is capable of increasing the detail resolution of reconstructed objects.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
  • (100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
  • (100.6640) Image processing : Superresolution
  • (150.6910) Machine vision : Three-dimensional sensing
  • (110.1758) Imaging systems : Computational imaging
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

(SANDIA) Optically Recording Velocity Interferometer System (ORVIS) Configurations and Impact of Target Surface Reflectance Properties

  • Marcia Cooper
  • received 05/01/2014; accepted 07/24/2014; posted 07/25/2014; Doc. ID 211173
  • [full text: PDF (3337) KB)]
  • Abstract: The utility of the ORVIS diagnostic to be configured to meet specific experimental needs in terms of line- and surface-imaging modes enabling direct control of the spatial, temporal and velocity sensitivities is presented along with two case studies of gas gun testing with highly heterogeneous materials. These experiments have successfully coupled two and three ORVIS interferometers onto a single experiment. Light collection from the target reflector is of critical importance to successful test execution. By utilizing the established field of electromagnetic wave scattering from rough surfaces, the reflectance characteristics of several ORVIS reflectors are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in terms of the surface roughness statistics, power spectral density and the bidirectional reflectance distribution function. Insights into the impact of the surfaces on ORVIS image records are quantified. Through method development for quantitatively characterizing reflector surfaces, future experimentation can begin with an ability to tailor a reflector to a given test material and experimental arrangement.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.2650) Image processing : Fringe analysis
  • (280.7250) Remote sensing and sensors : Velocimetry
  • (290.5880) Scattering : Scattering, rough surfaces
  • (290.1483) Scattering : BSDF, BRDF, and BTDF
  • (110.3175) Imaging systems : Interferometric imaging

(ODT2014) Quadruple-pass lateral shearing interferometer for collimation-based applications

  • King Ung Hii and Kuan Hiang Kwek
  • received 05/02/2014; accepted 07/24/2014; posted 07/24/2014; Doc. ID 209413
  • [full text: PDF (5445) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrate a quadruple-pass lateral shearing interferometer by introducing a single mirror into the conventional double-pass system for collimation-based applications. This interferometer permits the collimation of the double-pass test beam to be evaluated at a self-referencing sensitivity, and at the same time a differential sensitivity in collimation detection can be achieved through the quadruple-pass test beam. The proposed system can be utilized for both refraction-based and reflection-based applications that depend on a test arm with a convergent beam.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.1680) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Collimation
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology

(ODT2014)Proposed Fast Performance Evaluation of Imaging System with Discrete Detector Array

  • Yi-Chin Fang, Ho-Lin Tsay, and Guo-Yi Huang
  • received 05/02/2014; accepted 07/24/2014; posted 07/24/2014; Doc. ID 211302
  • [full text: PDF (1653) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper proposes a newly developed fast measure of MTF optical system inclusive of on axis and off-axis. Firstly, we discusses how a description of an imager in terms of its optical transfer function is not appropriate for discrete imaging system when aliasing occurs, since these optical systems transform high spatial frequencies into low frequencies; then measure how efficient microscanning method could remove the aliasing effects from assigned telecentric optics and non-telecentric optics. Knife edge and slit function as a light source is employed in this measurement. Experiment with newly-designed MTF measurement system synchronizes on axis and off-axis measurement. In addition, micro-scan method with specially written macro is introduced in this experiment to eliminate aliasing effects. After simulation and experimental analysis, first, slit function as a target deliver decent MTF repeatability for this newly developed MTF measurement system which synchronize with on axis and off-axis measurement simply in two seconds after all equipment is ready and aligned. Secondly, after six step microscanning, aliasing will be eliminate to near zero in most cases. Finally, it is concluded that during micro-scan, there is no difference between telecentric and non-telecentric optics.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.4100) Imaging systems : Modulation transfer function
  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology

High efficiency single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber laser with diffraction-limited beam output

  • Jiaqi Zhou, Bing He, Yan Feng, and Xijia Gu
  • received 05/16/2014; accepted 07/24/2014; posted 07/24/2014; Doc. ID 212238
  • [full text: PDF (1166) KB)]
  • Abstract: We designed and tested an all-fiber high efficient Yb-doped laser operating at 1088 nm with a single-mode-multimode-single-mode (SMS) structure. A lager-mode-area gain fiber of 1.5 m long with a 20/130 μm core/cladding diameters was used to increase the absorption and a diffraction-limited Gaussian output beam was obtained from the single-mode output fiber. Using a 976 nm laser diode as the pump source, the laser generated an output power up to 38.5 W with a slope efficiency of 70%. Output beam qualities, with and without SMS structure, were compared which showed that the fiber laser with the SMS structure can achieve high gain, short fiber length and excellent beam quality

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
  • (140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
  • (140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium

Improved Savitzky-Golay method based fluorescence subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra

  • Kun Chen, Hongyuan Zhang, Haoyun Wei, and Yan Li
  • received 05/26/2014; accepted 07/23/2014; posted 07/24/2014; Doc. ID 212679
  • [full text: PDF (4201) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this article, we propose an improved subtraction algorithm for rapid recovery of Raman spectra which can substantially reduce the computation time consuming. This algorithm is based on the improved Savitzky-Golay iterative smoothing method, which involved two key novel approaches — (a) the use of Gauss-Seidel iterative method and (b) the introduction of relaxation factor into the iterative procedure. The using of Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure can improve the convergence speed of the Savitzky-Golay method. Then, a powerful Successive Relaxation iterative method (SG-SR method) based on the relaxation factor w, has been developed. This iterative procedure can further improve the convergence speed of the Savitzky-Golay procedure. The proposed improved algorithm (RIA-SG-SR algorithm) in this article, which uses the SG-SR based iteration instead of Savitzky-Golay iteration has been optimized and validated with mathematically simulated Raman spectrum as well as experimentally measured Raman spectra from non-biological and biological samples. It showed a significant reducing of the computing cost as well as yield consistent rejection of low Signal-to-Fluorescence Ratios and noise under different type of baselines. In the simulation, the relative reductions of iteration number and computation time of RIA-SG-SR algorithm, when compared with RIA algorithm, are averagely 90.9% and 99% respectively. And the computation time of the experimentally measured raw Raman spectrum processing from skin tissue decreased from 6.72 s to 0.094s. In general, the processing of SG-SR method can be conducted within dozens of milliseconds, which can provide a real-time and efficient procedure in practical situations.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (300.2530) Spectroscopy : Fluorescence, laser-induced
  • (300.6450) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Raman

Measurement of principal refractive indices of birefringent wafer by analysis of Fabry–Pérot interference fringes

  • Hee Joo Choi and Myoungsik Cha
  • received 06/10/2014; accepted 07/22/2014; posted 07/23/2014; Doc. ID 213581
  • [full text: PDF (432) KB)]
  • Abstract: We developed an efficient method for measuring the principal refractive indices and thickness of an optically anisotropic wafer that involves the analysis of Fabry–Pérot interference fringes. Utilizing the birefringence of the medium, the 2π-phase ambiguity was readily resolved in single-wavelength measurements of the birefringent medium index. Although the accuracy of the index measurements is limited due to the innate ambiguity, our analysis method overcame this limit and could determine the principal refractive indices and thickness with an uncertainty of 10¯⁵. Our method was validated against measurements of a lithium niobate wafer for which the values of the indices are precisely known.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.5710) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Refraction
  • (160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials

(ODT2014) The measurement improvement by High overlapping density sub-aperture stitching interferometry

  • Hung-Sheng Chang, Chao-Wen Liang, Po-Chih Lin, and Yi-Chun Chen
  • received 05/02/2014; accepted 07/21/2014; posted 07/22/2014; Doc. ID 211374
  • [full text: PDF (3117) KB)]
  • Abstract: The vibration modulated subaperture stitching interferometer acquires the interferogram on the fly dynamically. With its highly improved measurement throughput, we applied the device for the high overlapping density subaperture stitching interferometry to acquire hundreds of overlapping subapertures in a single phase stitching measurement. The averaging effect of the high overlapping density stitching interferometer is discussed. In the experiment, the proposed high overlapping density stitching interferometer is also proved to reduce the measurement uncertainty and improve the measurement quality effectively.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (120.6660) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Surface measurements, roughness

(DT2014) Field curvature correction method for ultra-short throw ratio projection optics design using a convex-type freeform mirror surface

  • Zhenfeng Zhuang, Yanting Chen, and Feihong Yu
  • received 02/24/2014; accepted 07/21/2014; posted 07/22/2014; Doc. ID 206555
  • [full text: PDF (1017) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper presents a field curvature correction (FCC) method of designing ultra-short throw ratio (TR) projection lens for an imaging system. This projection lens is composed of a plurality of refractive optical elements and a convex-type freeform mirror surface. A curved virtual image is formed in a direction away from convex-type freeform mirror by the refractive optical elements from the image being on the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) panel. Then the convex-type freeform mirror surface enlarges the curve image and a plane image is formed on the screen. Based on the relationship between the chief ray from the exit pupil of each field of view (FOV) and the corresponding pre-described on the screen, the initial profile of freeform mirror surface is calculated by using segments of hyperbolic according to the law of reflection. For further optimization, the value of high-order odd polynomial surface is used to express the freeform mirror surface. As an example, an ultra-short TR projection lens that realizes projection onto a large 50-inch screen at a distance of only 510 mm is presented. The optical performance for the designed projection lens is analyzed by ray tracing method. Results show that the ultra-short TR projection lens modulation transfer function (MTF) of over 60 % at 0.5 lp/mm for all optimization fields is achievable with 2.0 f-number, and 126° full FOV, and < 1 % distortion, and 0.46 TR. Moreover, comparing the proposed projection lens optical specifications to that of traditional projection lens, aspheric mirror projection lens and conventional short TR projection lens, results indicate that this projection lens has the advantage of ultra-short TR, low f-number, wide FOV and small distortion.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
  • (080.3620) Geometric optics : Lens system design

(ODT2014) An investigation of a slope-point based method (SPM) for the design of aspheric surfaces in a catadioptric collimating optical system for an LED source

  • Rung-Sheng Chen
  • received 05/05/2014; accepted 07/21/2014; posted 07/22/2014; Doc. ID 210903
  • [full text: PDF (2364) KB)]
  • Abstract: The aim of this paper is to develop a straight-forward rigorous and flexible computational method to determine the coordinate points on an aspheric surface. The computational method chosen is based on the basic slope-point form of a straight-line equation (SPM). The practical instrumental example chosen to illustrate this method is a rotationally symmetric catadioptric collimator for an LED source. This optical system has both a refractive and a totally internally reflective aspheric surface. It is a particularly illuminating example because it requires careful computational attention to the smooth transition between the refracting inner zones and the reflective outer zones of the aperture. The chosen SPM computational method deals satisfactorily with the transition points at the junction between the refractive and TIR zones of the collimator. As part of this study, the effect of the position of the start point of the SPM surface evolution for the TIR zones of the collimator emerges as being particularly important and the details of this are discussed. Finally, an extension of the basic SPM-based method is used to generalise the development of the catadioptric collimator surfaces to illustrate this general algorithm for aspheric surface design for extended LED light source.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.3620) Geometric optics : Lens system design
  • (220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
  • (220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication
  • (220.2945) Optical design and fabrication : Illumination design
  • (220.4298) Optical design and fabrication : Nonimaging optics

(ODT2014) Wide-angle and ultra-thin camera module using a curved hexagonal microlens array and all spherical surfaces

  • Wei-Lun Liang and Guo-Dung Su
  • received 04/30/2014; accepted 07/21/2014; posted 07/22/2014; Doc. ID 211244
  • [full text: PDF (2379) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, we propose a wide-angle and thin camera module integrating the principles of the insect’s compound eye and the human eye, which mimic the curved hexagonal microlens array (MLA) and the hemispherical lens, respectively. Compared to typical mobile phone cameras with more than four lenses and limited field of view, the proposed system uses only two pieces of lenses to achieve a wide FOV. Furthermore, the thickness of our proposed system is only 2.7 mm. It has an f-number of 2.07, an image diameter of 4.032 mm, and a diagonal full field of view of 136°. The results combine good image quality with a modulation transfer function (MTF) above 0.3 at Nyquist frequency of 166 cycles/mm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
  • (220.3620) Optical design and fabrication : Lens system design
  • (220.3630) Optical design and fabrication : Lenses
  • (220.4830) Optical design and fabrication : Systems design

Refocusing a scanned laser projector for small and bright images: Simultaneously controlling the profile of the laser beam and the boundary of the image

  • Samantha Horvath, John Galeotti, Mel Siegel, and George Stetten
  • received 04/24/2014; accepted 07/20/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 207125
  • [full text: PDF (1045) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper describes a projection system for augmenting a scanned laser projector to create very small, very bright images. Normal imaging optics are insufficient because the laser beam profile differs optically from the aggregate image. We propose a novel arrangement of two lens groups working together to simultaneously adjust both the laser beam of the projector (individual pixels) and the spatial envelope containing them (the entire image) to the desired sizes. The present work models such a system using paraxial beam equations and ideal lenses to demonstrate that there is an “in focus” range, or depth of field, defined by the intersection of the resulting beam waist radius curve and the ideal pixel radius for a given image size. Images within this depth of field are in focus and can be adjusted to the desired size by manipulating the lenses.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
  • (350.5730) Other areas of optics : Resolution

Switchable and spacing-tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped silica fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifier loop mirror

  • Shuo Liu, Fengping Yan, Ting Feng, Beilei Wu, Ze Dong, and Gee-Kung Chang
  • received 04/24/2014; accepted 07/19/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 210585
  • [full text: PDF (559) KB)]
  • Abstract: A kind of switchable and spacing-tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped silica fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifier loop mirror is presented and experimentally demonstrated. By adjusting the polarization states of the polarization controllers (PCs), stable dual-wavelength operation is obtained at 2 μm band. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is approximately 56 dB. The wavelength tuning is performed by applying static strain into the fiber Bragg grating. The tuning range from 0 nm to 5.14 nm is achieved for the dual-wavelength spacing. By adjusting the PCs properly, the fiber laser can also operate in single wavelength state with the OSNR for each wavelength more than 50dB.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2390) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics, infrared
  • (060.3735) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings
  • (060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

(DH3D) (INVITED) Random-Subset Fitting of Digital Holograms for Fast 3D Particle Tracking

  • Thomas Dimiduk, Rebecca Perry, Jerome Fung, and Vinothan Manoharan
  • received 04/28/2014; accepted 07/19/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 211015
  • [full text: PDF (393) KB)]
  • Abstract: Fitting scattering solutions to time series of digital holograms is a precise way to measure three-dimensional (3D) dynamics of microscale objects such as colloidal particles. However, this inverse-problem approach is much more computationally expensive than less precise methods such as numerical reconstruction. We show that the computational time can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more by fitting to a random subset of the pixels in a hologram. We demonstrate our algorithm on experimentally-measured holograms of micrometer-scale colloidal particles, and we show that 20-fold increases in speed can be attained with an average error of 10 nm in the particle positions, as compared to results from fitting the full frames. The method is straightforward to implement and works for any scattering model. It also enables a parallelization strategy wherein random-subset fitting is used to quickly determine initial guesses that are subsequently used to fit full frames in parallel. This approach may prove particularly useful for studying rare events, such as nucleation, that can only be captured with high frame rates over long times.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
  • (100.3190) Image processing : Inverse problems
  • (100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
  • (180.6900) Microscopy : Three-dimensional microscopy
  • (290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory
  • (090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

A novel swarm-based algorithm for phase unwrapping

  • Lucas da Silva Maciel and Armando Albertazzi G.
  • received 05/09/2014; accepted 07/19/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 211534
  • [full text: PDF (1292) KB)]
  • Abstract: A novel algorithm for phase unwrapping based on swarm intelligence is proposed. The algorithm was designed based on three main goals: maximum coverage of reliable information, focused effort for better efficiency and reliable unwrapping. Experiments were performed and a new agent was designed to follow a simple set of five rules in order to achieve collectively these goals. These rules consist of random walking for unwrapping and searching, ambiguity evaluation by comparing unwrapped regions and a replication behavior responsible for the good distribution of agents throughout the image. The results were comparable to the results from established methods. The swarm-based algorithm was able to suppress ambiguities better than a flood-fill algorithm without relying on lengthy processing times. In addition, future developments like parallel processing and better quality pixel evaluation present a great potential for the proposed method.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
  • (100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
  • (110.5086) Imaging systems : Phase unwrapping
  • (110.2650) Imaging systems : Fringe analysis

Articles 1 to 20 of 127 Next Page >>





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