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Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

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Early Posting

Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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August


Investigation of subwavelength grating structure for enhanced surface plasmon resonance detection

  • M. Tahmasebpour, M. Bahrami, and A. Asgari
  • received 04/15/2014; accepted 08/18/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 210104
  • [full text: PDF (4719) KB)]
  • Abstract: A metallic subwavelength grating structure built on a thin gold film is studied for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of refractive index variations of biological buffer solutions. By employing the finite element analysis as a numerical method, characteristics of the angle interrogated SPR sensor were calculated and discussed in broad operating wavelength varying from visible to near–infrared (NIR). The effects of grating structural parameters such as grating depth, grating period and grating fill factor in different operating wavelengths have been evaluated on the sensor performance parameters of sensitivity, full width at half minimum (FWHM), minimum reflectance at resonance (MRR) and resonance angle. Numerical results indicate that adjusting grating geometrical parameters can enhance the performance parameters of the sensor specially in the NIR wavelengths. The enhanced sensor performance parameters for optimizing grating geometry have been explored in detail for visible and NIR wavelengths of 633 nm and 984 nm, respectively. These findings are important for developing of localized surface plasmon sensors with enhanced performance.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors
  • (050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for X-ray space telescopes

  • Xiaoli Wang, Peter Knapp, S. Vaynman, M. Graham, Jian Cao, and M. Ulmer
  • received 05/12/2014; accepted 08/16/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 211875
  • [full text: PDF (886) KB)]
  • Abstract: The desire of continuously gaining new knowledge in Astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, high quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an X-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of X-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable X-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup of measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-DTM on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with White Light Interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (340.0340) X-ray optics : X-ray optics
  • (340.7470) X-ray optics : X-ray mirrors
  • (350.1260) Other areas of optics : Astronomical optics
  • (310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications
  • (220.1080) Optical design and fabrication : Active or adaptive optics

A method to remove the effect of ambient temperature on radiometric calibration

  • Songtao Chang, Yaoyu Zhang, Zhiyuan Sun, and Min Li
  • received 07/18/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 217232
  • [full text: PDF (446) KB)]
  • Abstract: High precision radiometric calibration is essential for infrared imaging systems, especially in scientific applications where an accurate quantitative analysis is required. Nevertheless, calibration and radiometry are usually not simultaneously performed. Hence the discrepancy of ambient temperature between calibration and actual measurement can generate significant measurement errors unless the calibration results have been properly corrected. To overcome the restriction, we studied the effect of ambient temperature on radiometric calibration, then derived the relationship between calibration results and ambient temperature considering the integration time. A novel method compensating for the impact of ambient temperature on the calibration of a cooled infrared system is proposed. Several experiments are performed, and the results indicate that the proposed method can not only ensure the accuracy of calibration but achieve calibration results under any ambient temperature and arbitrary integration time.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (040.2480) Detectors : FLIR, forward-looking infrared
  • (040.3060) Detectors : Infrared
  • (120.6810) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Thermal effects
  • (290.2648) Scattering : Stray light
  • (010.5630) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Radiometry

An underwater blast wave pressure sensor based on polymer film fiber F-P cavity

  • Wang Junjie, Wang Meng, Xia Minghe, Xu Jian, Peng Li, Yang Minghong, and Jiang Desheng
  • received 11/04/2013; accepted 08/14/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 200516
  • [full text: PDF (729) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper describes the theoretical and experimental aspects of an optical underwater shock wave sensor based on polymer film optical fiber F-P cavity manufactured by vacuum deposition technology. The transduction mechanism of the sensor involves a normally incident acoustic stress wave that changes the thickness of the polymer film, thereby giving rise to a phase shift. This transient interferometric phase is interrogated by a three-phase-step algorithm. Theoretically, the sensor-acoustic-field interaction principle is analyzed, and the phase modulation sensitivity based on theory of waves in the layered media is calculated. Experimentally, a static calibration test and a dynamic calibration test are conducted using a piston-type pressure calibration machine and a focusing type electromagnetic shock wave. Results indicate that the repeatability, hysteresis and nonlinearity of the sensor with the pressure under 55MPa are 1.816%, 1.729% and 1.814%, respectively. Therefore, the overall measurement accuracy is ±[1.816%+1.729%+1.814%)/2] ≈ ±3.409% within the full range, and the dynamic response time is less than 0.767 µs. Finally, the three aspects that need further study for practical use are pointed out.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
  • (120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
  • (120.2230) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fabry-Perot
  • (120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
  • (120.4640) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical instruments
  • (120.5475) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Pressure measurement

Reduction of moiré for coarse integral volumetric imaging

  • Shimpei Sawada, Yukio Ueda, and Hideki Kakeya
  • received 06/16/2014; accepted 08/14/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 213787
  • [full text: PDF (1856) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper proposes two moiré reduction methods for coarse integral volumetric displays composed of multilayer display panels. The quality of the image presented by the conventional multilayer integral imaging stays relatively low because of the moiré pattern, which appears due to the layering structure of display panels with limited pixel aperture. The authors propose two methods to solve this problem. The first method is to add another layer of convex lens array with short focal length on the front side of the layered display panels. The second method is to enlarge the pixel pitch of the back layer panel while fixing that of the front layer panel.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
  • (100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
  • (120.2040) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Displays

(LC2014) Photographic Observation and Optical Simulation of a Pollen Corona Display in Japan

  • Souichiro Hioki and Hironobu Iwabuchi
  • received 07/02/2014; accepted 08/14/2014; posted 08/15/2014; Doc. ID 215247
  • [full text: PDF (1187) KB)]
  • Abstract: Brightness and chromaticity profiles were extracted from a vivid solar corona image taken with a digital camera in Sendai, Japan, to compare with a radiative transfer simulation applying Lorenz–Mie theory and single-scattering approximation. The comparison revealed suspended particles having a narrow particle size distribution peaking at radius 14.5 μm. Presumably, pollen of an indigenous coniferous tree, the cryptomeria (Cryptomeria japonica), is responsible for the corona display. The extracted brightness and chromaticity profiles are reproduced well by assuming the presence of a water soluble aerosol and dust in addition to the pollen. We find that photographic analysis of corona displays, similar to that used to measure cloud particle size, is applicable to estimating pollen particle size distribution and column number density.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.1110) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Aerosols
  • (010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
  • (010.1310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric scattering
  • (010.1690) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Color

Design and Simulation of a Nano-Scale Electro-Plasmonic 1×2 switch based on Asymmetric Metal-Insulator-Metal Stub filters

  • Ahmad Naseri Taheri and Hassan Kaatuzian
  • received 05/28/2014; accepted 08/14/2014; posted 08/14/2014; Doc. ID 213004
  • [full text: PDF (1007) KB)]
  • Abstract: A compact nano-scale electro-plasmonic 1×2 switch based on asymmetrical metal-insulator-metal stub filters is introduced. The structure is designed and analyzed based on the Transmission Line Method (TLM) and the switching operation of the device is numerically simulated and verified by the Finite Element Method (FEM). It is found that by adjusting the length of the stubs on each output branch of the structure the Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) are guided to only one of the output ports. By altering the refractive index of the Electro-Optical material (DAST) as the core of the structure with a 10V applied voltage, the SPPs are steered to the opposite port. The reflected SPPs from one stub filter enhance the output intensity of the reciprocal filter. The operating wavelength of the switch is the communication wavelength λ=1550nm. Nevertheless, it can be easily redesigned for another wavelength in the range of 800nm to 2000nm. The insertion losses and the extinction ratios guarantee an almost symmetrical switching for two outputs. The overall size of the switch is 400nm×450nm×600nm. The bandwidth of the switch is anticipated over 100GHz.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices
  • (130.4815) Integrated optics : Optical switching devices
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Injected Current Reshaping in Distance Measurement by Laser Self-Mixing Interferometry

  • Ke Kou, Xingfei Li, Li Li, and Hongbiao Xiang
  • received 06/25/2014; accepted 08/14/2014; posted 08/14/2014; Doc. ID 214486
  • [full text: PDF (419) KB)]
  • Abstract: Self-mixing interferometry (SMI), as an extreme simple and compact laser range finding technique, is especially appropriate to develop minitype sensors for narrow space and small precision parts. In order to enhance the distance resolution performance of this technique, we described the mechanism of nonlinearity in laser frequency under injected current tuning, and proposed a current reshaping method to linearize the laser frequency to attain higher resolution in the scheme of SMI. The proof of nonlinearity was obtained through numerical simulation by considering the change of temperature and carrier concentration and experiment by complex wavelet analysis. Current reshaping method, based on the experimental data of wavelength versus injected current, was proposed to suppress the nonlinearity and improve the distance resolution to better than 20 μm over the range of 2.4-20.4 cm. The influence of tuning parameters and other sources of error was discussed additionally.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
  • (120.4630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical inspection
  • (280.3420) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser sensors
  • (140.3518) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, frequency modulated

Broadly wavelength tunable acoustic-optically Q-switched Tm:LSO laser

  • T. Feng, K. Yang, S. Zhao, J. Zhao, W. Qiao, T. Li, L. Zheng, and J. Xu
  • received 07/02/2014; accepted 08/13/2014; posted 08/14/2014; Doc. ID 215219
  • [full text: PDF (753) KB)]
  • Abstract: A broadly wavelength tunable acoustic-optically Q-switched Tm:LSO laser has been presented for the first time, to our best knowledge. The emission wavelength was tuned in a broad spectral region over 111 nm ranging from 1959 nm to 2070 nm. A shortest pulse duration of 345 ns with a beam quality of M2≤1.65 was obtained at pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, corresponding to a maximum single pulse energy of 0.26 mJ and peak power of 0.75 kW. The experimental results indicated the Tm:LSO crystal an outstanding potential of obtaining broadly wavelength tunable and low PRF laser pulses at 2 μm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
  • (140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
  • (140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
  • (140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable

Resolution properties of transmission-mode exponential-doping Ga0.37Al0.63As photocathode

  • Honggang Wang, Xiaoqian Fu, Xuehong Ji, Yujie Du, Jian Liu, Yunsheng Qian, and Benkang Chang
  • received 05/30/2014; accepted 08/13/2014; posted 08/13/2014; Doc. ID 213158
  • [full text: PDF (600) KB)]
  • Abstract: Using the modulation transfer function obtained by establishing and solving the two-dimensional continuity equation, we have calculated and comparatively analyzed the resolution characteristics of transmission-mode exponential-doping and uniform-doping Ga0.37Al0.63As photocathodes. The calculations show that, compared with the uniform-doping Ga0.37Al0.63As photocathode, the exponential-doping structure can improve significantly not only the resolution but also the quantum efficiency of photocathode. This improvement is different from the approach for high resolution by reducing the emission layer thickness and the electron diffusion length or by increasing the recombination velocity of back-interface , which results in low quantum efficiency. Furthermore, the improvement of resolution and quantum efficiency for transmission-mode exponential-doping Ga0.37Al0.63As photocathode is the result of the effect of the built-in electric field on electrons transport and lateral diffusion.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (040.3780) Detectors : Low light level
  • (160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
  • (230.0250) Optical devices : Optoelectronics
  • (250.0040) Optoelectronics : Detectors

Two synchronized modes of ultrashort optical pulses in a two-beam pumped Ti:sapphire laser

  • Changjun Zhu, Guoqing Zhang, Bing Xue, and Xuejun Zhai
  • received 05/16/2014; accepted 08/13/2014; posted 08/14/2014; Doc. ID 212260
  • [full text: PDF (474) KB)]
  • Abstract: A two-beam-pumped dual-cavity Ti:sapphire laser in which femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses can be produced has been constructed. Two synchronized modes, femtosecond-femtosecond pulse synchronization and femtosecond-picosecond pulse synchronization, have been achieved, respectively. In the mode of femtosecond-femtosecond pulse synchronization, laser pulses of 26 fs and 23 fs were generated in the two laser cavities, respectively, with a timing jitter of 7 fs. In the mode of femtosecond-picosecond pulse synchronization, laser pulses of 29 fs and 1.49 ps were generated in the femtosecond and picosecond cavities, respectively, with a timing jitter of 30 fs. The results show that the operating stability and pulse synchronization are primarily governed by cross mode-locking which is induced by cross-phase modulation in the two laser cavities.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses
  • (320.7080) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast devices
  • (320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (320.7160) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast technology

Compact and broadband mode multiplexer and demultiplexer based on asymmetric plasmonicdielectric coupling

  • Mei Yin, Qingzhong Deng, Yanping Li, Xingjun Wang, and Hongbin Li
  • received 06/13/2014; accepted 08/12/2014; posted 08/13/2014; Doc. ID 213969
  • [full text: PDF (3774) KB)]
  • Abstract: A compact and broadband mode (de)multiplexer utilizing the asymmetrical directional coupling between a hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW) and a silicon nanowire waveguide is proposed. The coupling length is 13.6 μm, which is the shortest in TE0 & TE1 mode multiplexers reported until now. It shows a high mode conversion efficiency of 99.2% with the excess loss of only 0.35 dB at 1550 nm. The mode multiplexing circuit exhibits a low crosstalk of less than -17 dB over a large bandwidth of 100 nm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.4070) Coherence and statistical optics : Modes
  • (060.4230) Fiber optics and optical communications : Multiplexing
  • (130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
  • (200.4650) Optics in computing : Optical interconnects

Sinusoidal phase-modulating fiber-optic interferometer fringe with a feedback control system

  • Changrong Lv, Fajie Duan, En Bo, Xiaojie Duan, Fan Feng, and Xiao Fu
  • received 04/16/2014; accepted 08/12/2014; posted 08/14/2014; Doc. ID 210286
  • [full text: PDF (1330) KB)]
  • Abstract: A displacement measurement system using a fiber-optic interferometer fringe projector with a feedback control system is presented and demonstrated. The system utilizes the integrating bucket method to detect the desired phase or the displacement and Fresnel reflection signal to realize the measurement of the disturbance and feed back to the modulated signal of laser at the same time. The continuous signal truly reflects the error information as the output light and the reflected light share the same optical path. Practical experiments validate the feasibility of this method.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
  • (060.2300) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber measurements
  • (060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (120.6660) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Surface measurements, roughness

Broadband THz transmission within the symmetrical plastic film coated parallel-plate waveguide

  • Jiamin Liu, Huawei Liang, Min Zhang, and Hong Su
  • received 05/21/2014; accepted 08/12/2014; posted 08/12/2014; Doc. ID 212484
  • [full text: PDF (454) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report the broadband THz transmission within the symmetrical plastic film coated parallel-plate waveguide. We theoretically study the antiresonant reflecting mechanism of the waveguide and we find that the broadband THz wave can transmit in this waveguide with ultra-low loss. The loss of TM mode in this waveguide can be four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated parallel-plate waveguide. The transmission bandwidth of this waveguide is up to 5.12 THz. We further show the mode field distributions which explain the loss mechanism.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
  • (230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar
  • (300.6270) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, far infrared

Absolute measurement of hyperspectral and angular reflection

  • Jisoo Hwang
  • received 05/19/2014; accepted 08/12/2014; posted 08/13/2014; Doc. ID 212192
  • [full text: PDF (720) KB)]
  • Abstract: A new instrument for absolute measurement of hyperspectral and angular reflection is presented. The instrument determines absolute values of angular reflection quantities in a wavelength range from 380 nm to 780 nm with a 3 nm spectral resolution by using a collimated white source and a CCD-based spectroradiometer. Through uncertainty evaluation, the measurement uncertainty is determined as 1.4% to 2.9% (k=2) for white diffuse material of Spectralon. The gonioreflectometric determination and an integrating sphere-based reflection measurement traceable to KRISS spectral reflectance scale are compared by determining hemispherical reflectance, which results in agreement in their uncertainties.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
  • (120.5820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Scattering measurements
  • (290.1483) Scattering : BSDF, BRDF, and BTDF
  • (110.4234) Imaging systems : Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging

Interpretation of visible moiré between repetitive non-periodic gratings in the image domain

  • Lei Yu, Shu-rong Wang, and Guan-yu Lin
  • received 06/11/2014; accepted 08/11/2014; posted 08/12/2014; Doc. ID 213704
  • [full text: PDF (2179) KB)]
  • Abstract: An image domain approach to the interpretation of visible moiré phenomenon in the non-periodic gratings multiplicative superposition has been proposed. With the local frequency method, the instantaneous period and orientation of moiré have been obtained. These parameters of moiré have been sorted into real and pseudo by our analysis which introduces the concept “equivalent period contribution threshold”. The calculation of average intensities of generated waveforms along orientations of real moiré and pseudo moiré proves that different threshold introduces different average intensity distribution (macrostructure effects). However, with the local intensity variation (microstructure effects), the human eyes will confuse different macrostructure effects but only consider them as the same. The macrostructure versus microstructure effects garble discernment of human eyes and result in different visible moiré phenomenon. The interpretation is significant for visible moiré effects in various non-periodic repetitive gratings (both of cosinusoidal and binary gratings) multiplicative superposition in the image domain. It also presents and summarizes the coexistence of the real moiré and pseudo moiré in the repetitive, non-periodic layers.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
  • (070.0070) Fourier optics and signal processing : Fourier optics and signal processing
  • (120.4120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Moire' techniques

Fast and effective occlusion culling for 3D holographic display by inverse orthographic projection with low angular sampling

  • Jia Jia, Juan Liu, Guofan Jin, and Yongtian Wang
  • received 07/10/2014; accepted 08/11/2014; posted 08/13/2014; Doc. ID 216377
  • [full text: PDF (6128) KB)]
  • Abstract: Occlusion culling is an important issue to produce a correct depth cues for observers in holographic display, whereas the current methods suffer the occlusion errors or the high computational load. We propose a fast and effective method for occlusion culling based on multiple light-points sampling planes and inverse orthographic projection technique. Multiple light-points sampling planes are employed to remove the hidden surfaces for each direction of the view of 3-D scene by forward orthographic projection, and inverse orthographic projection technique is used to determine the effective sampling points of 3-D scene. The numerical simulation and optical experiment are performed. The results show that this approach can realize accurate occlusion effect, smooth motion parallax and continuous depth using low angular sampling without any extra computation cost.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
  • (090.2870) Holography : Holographic display
  • (090.5694) Holography : Real-time holography

Effects of azimuthal angles on laser interference lithography

  • Jinjin Zhang, Zuobin Wang, Xu Di, Le Zhao, and Dapeng Wang
  • received 06/25/2014; accepted 08/11/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 214709
  • [full text: PDF (10394) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper discusses the effects of azimuthal angles on two, three and four-beam laser interference. In two or three-beam laser interference, periodic surface structures of lines or dots were obtained. In four-beam laser interference with the polarization mode of TE-TM-TE-TM, the modulation in a particular direction was formed and calculated. In the work, a He-Ne laser system was used to simulate two, three and four-beam laser interference, and the interference pattern was detected by CCD. A high power Nd:YAG laser interference lithography (LIL) system was set up to pattern silicon wafers. In the experiments, one azimuthal angle was changed every time to form interference patterns when polarization states were fixed and incident angles were equal. The experimental results have shown that the azimuthal angle affects the periods and feature sizes of the interference patterns and the fabricated surface structures, which are in accordance with the theoretical and computer simulation results.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
  • (220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
  • (260.3160) Physical optics : Interference

(DH3D) (INVITED) Holographic three-dimensional display and hologram calculation based on liquid crystal on silicon device

  • Junchang Li, Han-Yen Tu, Wei-Chieh Yeh, Jinbin Gui, and Chau-Jern Cheng
  • received 04/22/2014; accepted 08/10/2014; posted 08/12/2014; Doc. ID 210507
  • [full text: PDF (1273) KB)]
  • Abstract: Based on scalar diffraction theory and the geometric structure of liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), we study the impulse responses and image depth of focus in holographic three-dimensional (3D) display system. Theoretical expressions of the impulse response and the depth of focus of reconstructed 3D images are obtained, and experimental verifications of the imaging properties are performed. The results indicated that the images formed by holographic display based on LCoS device were periodic image fields surrounding optical axes. The widths of the image fields were directly proportional to the wavelength and diffraction distance, and inversely proportional to the pixel size of LCoS device. Based on the features of holographic 3D imaging and focal depth, we enhance currently popular hologram calculation methods of 3D object to improve the computing speed of hologram calculation.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
  • (090.2870) Holography : Holographic display
  • (070.6120) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spatial light modulators

Perfectly Correlated Phase Screens Realization using the Sparse Spectrum Harmonic Augmentation

  • Itay Naeh and Abraham Katzir
  • received 05/07/2014; accepted 08/08/2014; posted 08/08/2014; Doc. ID 211535
  • [full text: PDF (1403) KB)]
  • Abstract: The Split-Step Fourier method is commonly used to simulate propagation of radiation in the turbulent atmosphere using two-dimensional phase screens that have the desires spatial spectral content given by the atmospheric power spectrum. Using the existing methodologies, isotropy of the structure function can never be reached, mainly along the axis of propagation for several reasons. In this paper we introduce the Sparse Spectrum Harmonic Augmentation method that will address the lack of isotropy along the propagation axis, the limited achievable frequencies and the limited time development possible using the known approaches. Following the described methodology will produce phase screens which are transversely endless, perfectly correlated along the propagation axis and contain the desired spectral content, including the low frequencies that even though contains most of the energy, are usually being neglected. The following methodology can be used for many aspects of wave propagation in random media, such as atmospheric propagation, underwater acoustics, radio waves propagation in the ionosphere and more.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.1290) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric optics
  • (010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
  • (080.2710) Geometric optics : Inhomogeneous optical media
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

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