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Early Posting

Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

OSA now posts prepublication articles as soon as they are accepted and cleared for production. See the FAQ for additional information.

Articles 1 to 20 of 142 Next Page >>


Flicker-glare and visual-comfort assessments of light emitting diode billboards II: color display

  • Yi-Chun Chen, Meng-Wei Lin, Ming-Wei Lee, and Erik Chang
  • received 11/07/2014; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/26/2015; Doc. ID 226509
  • [full text: PDF (1132) KB)]
  • Abstract: The flicker glare and visual comfort of multicolor LED billboards are investigated in this study. The influences of two factors, flicker frequency and panel luminance, on visual discomfort and tiredness are examined. The results of ergonomic assessments show that visual comfort is affected by both the flicker frequency and luminance, but visual tiredness is not influenced by either factor. By curve fitting the experimental data, comfort rating models as functions of the flicker frequency and luminance are proposed. Furthermore, the ranges of proper operating conditions are suggested based on the predictions of the proposed models.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (330.0330) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision, color, and visual optics
  • (330.5020) Vision, color, and visual optics : Perception psychology
  • (330.5510) Vision, color, and visual optics : Psychophysics

Optical properties of edible oils within spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm determined by double optical pathlength transmission method

  • Lin Hua Liu, Xingcan Li, Junming Zhao, and Jianyu Tan
  • received 12/12/2014; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/26/2015; Doc. ID 230596
  • [full text: PDF (7691) KB)]
  • Abstract: The optical properties of nine different samples of edible oils were experimentally determined by double optical pathlength transmission method (DOPTM) in the spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm between 20 and 80 °C. The index of refraction exhibits little difference from the different types of edible oils. The index of absorption of all brands of studied edible oils decreased with the increasing temperature in the spectral range from 500 to 1100 nm. The variation of index of absorption was found to be insensitive to the increasing of temperature in the spectral range from 300 to 500 nm and from 1100 to 2500 nm. The absorption peaks locating at 900, 1210, 1400, 1750, 2150 and 2300 nm of the measured edible oils were corresponding to the result of overtones and combinations of C–H stretching vibration of various chemical groups. A difference of index of absorption was observed among the peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil in the spectral range from 300 to 500 nm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.4530) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical constants
  • (300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption
  • (300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared
  • (300.6540) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, ultraviolet
  • (300.6550) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, visible

A study on the feasibility of LED in the wound healing application

  • Xin Gu, Xiaoli Zhou, Xihong Bao, Shenglong Fan, Muqing Liu, and Lixin Wang
  • received 12/29/2014; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/27/2015; Doc. ID 231133
  • [full text: PDF (1130) KB)]
  • Abstract: Poor wound healing is a common secondary complication for many diseases. Light therapy is a new way to improve wound healing. In this paper, a 630 nm and 830 nm LED was used to research the influence of low level light therapy on wound healing through cytological and animal experiments. In the cytological experiment, the cell viability and synthesis of hydroxyproline was measured. In the animal experiment, rats were given an artificial wound. Then, the effects of LED irradiation on wound healing were compared with control rats that did not receive the light therapy. The wound healing rate and collagen fiber formation was researched. The optimal parameter combination of wavelength, power and irradiation time was found. The effect of LED application on the wound healing was explored.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
  • (170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
  • (230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
  • (350.4600) Other areas of optics : Optical engineering

High-Speed Dual-Beam, Crossed Line-Scanning Fluorescence Microscope with a Point Confocal Resolution

  • HyunWoo Jeong, Hyung-Jin Kim, Jung Eun, Seungjin Heo, Mikyoung Lim, Yong-Hoon Cho, and Beop-Min Kim
  • received 01/08/2015; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/27/2015; Doc. ID 231800
  • [full text: PDF (567) KB)]
  • Abstract: Line-scanning microscopes are often used to overcome the limited scanning speed of conventional point-scanning confocal microscopes, at the cost, however, of spatial resolution. In this paper, present a dual-beam fluorescence line-scanning microscope that can restore the original confocal resolution. This microscope forms two orthogonal line foci in the object plane with perpendicular scanning directions, which create two line-scan images of the same area. From these images, the real noise and confocal characteristics are analyzed. Based on this information, we developed an image restoration algorithm to produce a final image with spatial resolution comparable to that of a conventional point-scanning confocal microscope. This algorithm was derived with the total variation regularization, and the critical image restoration factor for the algorithm was determined via an iterative process. Our results indicate that the intrinsic resolution limit of line-scanning microscopes can be overcome without subsequent deterioration in spatial resolution.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
  • (180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy
  • (180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy

Double-layered light shutter using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cells

  • Tae-Hoon Yoon, Jae-Won Huh, Byeong-Hun Yu, and Joon Heo
  • received 01/14/2015; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 03/27/2015; Doc. ID 232581
  • [full text: PDF (752) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a double-layered light shutter device using two cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLC) cells. The proposed light shutter consists of a light-scattering layer using long-pitch cholesteric LCs and a light-absorption layer using dye-doped ChLCs. The light shutter has four switchable states: light scattering, light absorption, absorption & scattering, and transparent. The light shutter in the absorption & scattering state can block the background image and provide a black color. By switching of the proposed light shutter positioned at the rear side of a transparent display, we can operate a transparent display in various modes, not just showing the images produced by a transparent display along with the background.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
  • (230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices

Packaged and robust microcavity device based on a microcylinder-taper coupling system

  • Yongchao Dong, Wang Wang, and Xueying Jin
  • received 02/04/2015; accepted 03/25/2015; posted 03/26/2015; Doc. ID 234004
  • [full text: PDF (4888) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose and realize a packaged structure for the microcylinder-taper coupling system by only gluing a glass tube and two glass plates together. Our package method avoids embedding the coupling system into the polymer, thus leaving the whispering gallery mode (WGM) evanescent fields available for environmental sensing. The excitation of localized high-order axial modes in the cylinder resonator fabricated by using a fusion splicer is demonstrated and a quality factor (Q) up to 1.4 × 107 is obtained. The Q maintenance and stable spectrum are realized by sealing the packaged device in a clean box. Moreover, the robustness of the packaged structure is also tested, demonstrating its remarkable anti-vibration ability. The portability and robustness of the device make it attractive in practical applications such as sensors, lasers, and especially some applied areas in strong vibration environments.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
  • (140.3948) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavity devices
  • (280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors

Polarization circulation effect in microbend-induced long-period fiber gratings for polarization-insensitive filter response

  • Hajime Sakata and Tomohiro Harada
  • received 01/21/2015; accepted 03/25/2015; posted 03/26/2015; Doc. ID 233017
  • [full text: PDF (547) KB)]
  • Abstract: We analyze the reduction mechanism of polarization dependence in loss-peak wavelength for microbend-induced long-period fiber gratings (M-LPFGs) formed in twisted fibers. The analysis model consists of the stress-induced birefringence associated with the microbend as well as the optical activity induced by the twisted fiber. We verify the analysis model by measuring the change in the state of polarization (SOP) through the torsion M-LPFG. We reveal that the efficient circulation of the polarization components occurs in the torsion M-LPFG so that the polarization dependence of the loss-peak wavelengths is reduced. In the experiments, the M-LPFG is controlled by an electromagnet in the combination of a coil spring. The experimental results demonstrate a good agreement with the calculated expectation for the polarization-insensitive M-LPFGs.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
  • (060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (050.2555) Diffraction and gratings : Form birefringence
  • (230.7408) Optical devices : Wavelength filtering devices

Modal wavefront reconstruction from its gradient

  • Iacopo Mochi and Kenneth Goldberg
  • received 02/04/2015; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 233363
  • [full text: PDF (1095) KB)]
  • Abstract: Several wavefront sensing techniques provide direct or indirect measurements of the wavefront error gradient, for example the Shack Hartmann sensor, the Foucault knife-edge test, shearing interferometry and many others. We developed and tested a non-iterative method to reconstruct the wavefront error from its gradient. The method is based on the projection of the measured gradients onto a basis derived from multiple directional derivatives that have been combined into an intermediate set of orthogonal functions. To reduce errors that arise from linear approximations, the intermediate functions can be calculated with parameters that match the known experimental conditions. This method can be implemented using any convenient set of smooth polynomials defined on a two-dimensional domain and it is not computationally intensive. In this paper we describe the method in detail, provide an example of a possible implementation, and discuss the effect that random noise in the measured gradient has on the reconstruction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (110.7348) Imaging systems : Wavefront encoding

Nonlinear Pulse Propagation in Wavelength Dependence of Birefringence Fiber Optics

  • Rodrigo Acuna Herrera
  • received 02/05/2015; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 233889
  • [full text: PDF (352) KB)]
  • Abstract: We performance analytical and numerical analysis of the influence of wavelength dependence of birefringence (WDB) in nonlinear pulse propagation trough fiber optics. We find a set of coupled nonlinear equations which allow to study WDB in fibers. By first time, the concept of cross-dispersion birefringence (CDB) is introduced what makes spectral pulse evolution broadens faster than usual. Some linear and nonlinear phenomenon are analyzed such as polarization trajectories, four wave mixing (FWM), and supercontinuum (SC) generation. We show that WDB changes dramatically the polarization states, and Stoke and anti-Stoke waves linearly move toward longer and shorter wavelengths, respectively. Finally, we see that CDB has the capability to generate SC with immunity to initial polarization angle.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
  • (060.2420) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, polarization-maintaining
  • (190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence

Characterization of the photonic generation of phase-coded RF signals based on pulse shaping and frequency-to-time mapping

  • Hao Chi, Yuan Mei, Tao Jin, Shilie Zheng, Xiaofeng Jin, and Xianmin Zhang
  • received 02/05/2015; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 234027
  • [full text: PDF (596) KB)]
  • Abstract: Photonic generation of arbitrary waveforms based on pulse shaping and frequency-to-time mapping is of great interest since it offers an effective way to generate complex signals with large bandwidth. In this paper, we mathematically study the photonic generation of phase-coded radiofrequency (RF) signals based on pulse shaping and frequency-to-time mapping in detail. By mathematically analyzing the process of signals generation and utilizing a less restrictive dispersion requirement, a design criterion for the generation of well-shaped phase-coded RF waveforms is presented, by which we can properly set the spatial light modulator (SLM) in the pulse shaper and dispersion in the system according to the carrier frequency and modulating frequency of the desired waveform. In addition, the maximum achievable time-bandwidth product of phase-coded RF signals that can be generated is estimated. The theory is verified by numerical and experimental results. The presented results can be used to guide the design of a photonic system for the generation of high-quality phase-coded RF signals.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping
  • (060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics
  • (070.6120) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spatial light modulators

Optimization of plasmonic high harmonic generation in a 3D pyramidal nano-waveguide by tuning aspect ratio of its rectangle cross section and chirp and polarization of femtosecond incident pulses

  • Reza Massudi and Hanieh Alinejad
  • received 02/09/2015; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 234365
  • [full text: PDF (544) KB)]
  • Abstract: Surface Plasmon Polariton propagation in a pyramidal 3D nano-structural waveguide with rectangular cross section carved in silver is studied using FDTD. Effect of the amount of aspect ratio of rectangle sides on enhancement factor is studied and for r=0.4 maximum field enhancement of 96 dB is obtained. Furthermore, it is observed that by adjusting amount of the incident chirp this factor can increases to 100 dB. It was also found that polarization of the incident beam doesn’t change optimum value of aspect ratio, but the maximum enhancement factor for linearly polarized and elliptically polarized beam along y axis is larger.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
  • (190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

A Novel Slant Edge Method for Point Spread Function Estimation

  • Grand Li, Chong Fan, and Chao Tao
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/27/2015; Doc. ID 229221
  • [full text: PDF (1462) KB)]
  • Abstract: The traditional edge method (TEM) is applicable only in areas whose knife-edges are horizontal or vertical. The slant edge method (SEM) requires using the approximate function in the edge spread function (ESF) fitting. The ESF sample is uneven and therefore affects the accuracy of the estimated point spread function (PSF). This study proposes a novel slant edge method (NSEM), including a knife-edge area extraction algorithm which ensures the evenness of the ESF sample and a PSF estimation algorithm which directly fits the line spread function to improve the accuracy of the estimated PSF. The validity of the NSEM has been proven in theory, and its practicability in practice. Compared with the TEM and SEM, the NSEM exhibits a clear improvement in accuracy and stability across the three experiments conducted in this study.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.3020) Image processing : Image reconstruction-restoration
  • (280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors

Passive imaging of concealed subjects in terahertz and long wavelength infrared

  • Marcin Kowalski, Mariusz Kastek, Norbert Palka, Michal Walczakowski, and Mieczyslaw Szustakowski
  • received 01/05/2015; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 231808
  • [full text: PDF (1361) KB)]
  • Abstract: Terahertz and infrared radiation have unique properties applicable to the field of surveillance and security systems. We investigated the possibility of detecting potentially dangerous objects covered by various types of clothing using passive imagers operating at 1.2 mm (250 GHz) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) at 6–15 μm (20–50 THz). We developed a measurement methodology that assumes to investigate theoretical limitations, performance of imagers and physical properties of fabrics. To evaluate stability of the detection capabilities of imagers, we performed measurement sessions each lasting 30 minutes. We present a theoretical comparison of the two spectra and results of experiments using state of the art equipment.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (110.3080) Imaging systems : Infrared imaging
  • (110.6820) Imaging systems : Thermal imaging
  • (330.1880) Vision, color, and visual optics : Detection
  • (330.5000) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - patterns and recognition
  • (040.2235) Detectors : Far infrared or terahertz
  • (110.6795) Imaging systems : Terahertz imaging

Impact of speed, direction and accuracy of DOE shift on efficiency of speckle suppression

  • Anatoliy Lapchuk, Victor Yurlov, Andriy Kryuchyn, Genadzi Pashkevich, Volodymyr Klymenko, and Oleksandr Bogdan
  • received 10/09/2014; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/24/2015; Doc. ID 224651
  • [full text: PDF (788) KB)]
  • Abstract: The impact of the precision and direction of motion of a diffractive optical element (DOE) placed inside the optical system on the efficiency of speckle suppression is analyzed. A simple model for calculating the speckle suppression efficiency in systems having a moving DOE and random diffuser is developed. The results of a simulation show that at the optimal inclination angles of a regular 2D DOE and at sufficiently rapid displacement (by at least N DOE periods), the speckle contrast exhibits a broad minimum. At angles that differ significantly from the optimal values, the speckle contrast varies rapidly and has peaks that exceed the minimum value by several tens of percent. For certain angles, the speckle contrast is several times higher than the minimum value.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (030.6140) Coherence and statistical optics : Speckle
  • (030.6600) Coherence and statistical optics : Statistical optics
  • (110.1650) Imaging systems : Coherence imaging

Widely tunable multi-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser using a fiber interferometer and a tunable spatial mode beating filter

  • Tianshu Wang, Wanzhuo Ma, Peng Zhang, Jian Han, and Jing Zhang
  • received 12/17/2014; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/24/2015; Doc. ID 229114
  • [full text: PDF (901) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose and demonstrate a widely tunable multi-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser using a hybrid filter in order to expand the tuning range of multi-wavelength laser. The hybrid filter consists of an all-fiber interferometer and a tunable spatial mode beating filter. The operation principles of the interferometer and the tunable filter are analyzed respectively. With pump power of 200mW the number of wavelength can be tuned from one to nine by adjusting the polarization controller in the interferometer, and the multi-wavelength laser can be tuned from 1896nm to 1936nm by adjusting the polarization controller in the spatial mode beating filter. The wavelength spacing is 0.35nm and the linewidth of a single-wavelength is 0.03nm. When pump power increases to 1W, the spacing of dual-wavelength laser can be tuned from 6nm to 36nm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2420) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, polarization-maintaining
  • (140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
  • (060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

Optimized guided to leaky mode device for GPU controlled frequency division of color

  • Daniel Smalley, Andrew Henrie, Stephen McLaughlin, and Christopher Leach
  • received 01/26/2015; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/24/2015; Doc. ID 231782
  • [full text: PDF (1221) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present fabrication parameters for an annealed proton exchanged lithium niobate guided wave modulator, which has been optimized for frequency division color multiplexing. We achieve a design that reduces the necessary drive bandwidth by more than half to match the 200MHz bandwidth of commodity GPU outputs. By matching the device bandwidth to that of the GPU outputs, we have made possible highly parallel and scalable color waveguide displays.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (090.2870) Holography : Holographic display
  • (130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
  • (130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
  • (090.1705) Holography : Color holography
  • (130.7408) Integrated optics : Wavelength filtering devices

Iterative phase retrieval algorithms: Part II. Attacking optical encryption systems

  • John Sheridan, Changliang Guo, and Shi Liu
  • received 01/20/2015; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/24/2015; Doc. ID 232605
  • [full text: PDF (4211) KB)]
  • Abstract: The modified iterative phase retrieval algorithms developed in Part I [1] are applied to perform known plaintext and ciphertext attacks (KPCA) on both Amplitude Encoding (AE) and Phase Encoding (PE) Fourier transform based Double Random Phase Encryption (DRPE) systems. It is shown that the new algorithms can retrieve the two Random Phase Keys (RPKs) perfectly. The performances of the algorithms are tested by using the retrieved RPKs to decrypt a set of different ciphertexts encrypted using the same RPKs. Significantly, it is also shown that the DRPE system is, under certain conditions, vulnerable to Ciphertext-Only Attack (COA), i.e. in some cases an attacker can decrypt DRPE data successfully when only the ciphertext is intercepted.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
  • (100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
  • (100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
  • (060.4785) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical security and encryption

An experimental evaluation of inline free-space holography systems

  • Yang Wu, Adrian Stern, Shi Liu, James Ryle, and Damien Kelly
  • received 01/19/2015; accepted 03/23/2015; posted 03/24/2015; Doc. ID 232794
  • [full text: PDF (6815) KB)]
  • Abstract: It is important to be able to quantify, both theoretically and experimentally, the performance of coherent digital systems so that their suitability for a given metrology application can be assessed. Here a free-space inline digital holographic system is investigated. To isolate the scattered object field, Phase Shifting Interferometry (PSI) techniques are used. Several sequential holographic measurements are made where the phase of the reference field is stepped by a known amount relative to the scattered object field between captures. Under ideal conditions such as noise free electronics, vibration free environment and perfect reference and illuminating object wave, this system will be diffraction limited. However real systems suffer from experimental error and noise effects. In this paper we examine a PSI digital holographic imaging system considering all prominent error sources. An experimental metric is defined that quantifiers how far from the theoretical ideal a real system is performing. By carefully optimizing our system, doing our recommended guideline, we approach diffraction limited imaging, surpassing the Nyquist sampling rate of the CCD device.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.5080) Diffraction and gratings : Phase shift
  • (090.1000) Holography : Aberration compensation
  • (090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

Characterization of Bacillus thuringienis parasporal crystals using laser speckle technique: effect of crystals concentration and dimension

  • rana nassif, Bernard Le Jeune, Guy Le Brun, Fabrice Pellen, Marie Abboud, Christelle Abou Nader, Mireille Awad, Jihane Rahbany, Dominique Salameh, and Roger Lteif
  • received 02/05/2015; accepted 03/23/2015; posted 03/24/2015; Doc. ID 233815
  • [full text: PDF (790) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, we report experimental results where laser speckle grain size and degree of light polarization are used to distinguish different sizes of Bacillus thuringienis spherical crystals and different concentration within fermentation products. Three strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, isolated from the Lebanese soil, are selected. After fermentation, crystals and spores are separated using a technique based on flotation in order to obtain large quantities of relatively pure crystals. Crystals are then embedded in an agarose matrix gel and illuminated by a laser. Speckle patterns are recorded and analyzed. Results show that when crystals concentrations increase in the sample, the values of light linear polarization degree and speckle grain size decrease, and the negative values of light circular polarization degree increase. A transition from a Rayleigh scattering regime to a Mie regime is also observed. Furthermore, when the diameter of spherical crystal increases, the normalized value of light linear polarization degree and the grain size diminish drastically for a given concentration of crystals in the matrix, whereas the normalized value of light circular polarization degree increases. This optical characterization constitutes an unambiguous signature of spherical crystals produced by fermentations of different Bacillus thuringienis strains and shows that speckle may potentially be used at an industrial scale as a low-cost and non-invasive technique in order to characterize crystals geometry and to evaluate the yield of crystal production within fermentation.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (030.6140) Coherence and statistical optics : Speckle
  • (110.6150) Imaging systems : Speckle imaging
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

Optical systems with circular apertures protected by plane-parallel entrance windows in wide angle radiation fields

  • Stanislaw Tryka
  • received 12/09/2014; accepted 03/23/2015; posted 03/24/2015; Doc. ID 229304
  • [full text: PDF (1324) KB)]
  • Abstract: Optical systems protected by plane-parallel entrance windows from external environmental conditions were studied for determining the radiation fluxes passing through their circular apertures from wide angle on-axis and off-axis point sources. The study was performed for the case when the windows, the internal environments and the external environments of these optical systems were considered as three different homogeneous isotropic and attenuating media. All considerations were made for ideal plane-parallel windows illuminated by an arbitrary radiation field applying the multiple-reflection theory. As a result of this study, a multi-domain integral equation method, based on a mathematical formula, expressed by a series of multiple reflected fluxes of radiation within the plane-parallel window was proposed. The applicability of the method was tested using computer simulations for an isotropic point source and a small area Lambertian source represented by a point source model. The computed results were validated by the Optical Software for Layout and Optimization (OSLO), program from Lambda Research Corporation (USA). The selected results were illustrated graphically and analyzed. The numerical simulations have shown high accuracy and efficiency in the calculations for arbitrary emitting point sources. The potential applications of the presented method include optical sensing and metrology by window protected optical systems illuminated by non-collimated radiation from the on-axis and off-axis point sources.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.1510) Geometric optics : Propagation methods
  • (120.1880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Detection
  • (120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
  • (120.7000) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Transmission
  • (350.4600) Other areas of optics : Optical engineering
  • (080.4295) Geometric optics : Nonimaging optical systems

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