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Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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Articles 1 to 20 of 121 Next Page >>


Refocusing a scanned laser projector for small and bright images: Simultaneously controlling the profile of the laser beam and the boundary of the image

  • Samantha Horvath, John Galeotti, Mel Siegel, and George Stetten
  • received 04/24/2014; accepted 07/20/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 207125
  • [full text: PDF (1045) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper describes a projection system for augmenting a scanned laser projector to create very small, very bright images. Normal imaging optics are insufficient because the laser beam profile differs optically from the aggregate image. We propose a novel arrangement of two lens groups working together to simultaneously adjust both the laser beam of the projector (individual pixels) and the spatial envelope containing them (the entire image) to the desired sizes. The present work models such a system using paraxial beam equations and ideal lenses to demonstrate that there is an “in focus” range, or depth of field, defined by the intersection of the resulting beam waist radius curve and the ideal pixel radius for a given image size. Images within this depth of field are in focus and can be adjusted to the desired size by manipulating the lenses.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
  • (350.5730) Other areas of optics : Resolution

AlGaAs guided-wave second harmonic generation at 2.23 μm from a quantum cascade laser

  • C. Ozanam, M. Savanier, A. Lemaitre, G. Almuneau, M. Carras, I. Favero, S. Ducci, and G. Leo
  • received 05/30/2014; accepted 07/19/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 212436
  • [full text: PDF (1175) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrate frequency doubling of a quantum cascade laser in a multilayered, partially oxidized GaAs/AlOx waveguide. Using the waveguide width to fulfill the phase-matching condition, the second harmonic is generated in the wavelength range between 2.2 and 2.4 µm, where not many semiconductor sources are commercially available to date. We discuss the impact of a few fabrication and experimental parameters on the conversion efficiency, an essential step towards the improvement and the practical implementation of this proof-of-principle semiconductor microsystem.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
  • (190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics

Reverse optimization reconstruction of aspheric figure error in a non-null interferometer

  • Dong Liu, Tu Shi, Lei Zhang, Yongying Yang, Shiyao Chong, and Yibing Shen
  • received 06/11/2014; accepted 07/19/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 213849
  • [full text: PDF (3178) KB)]
  • Abstract: Aspheric non-null test, as an alternative to the traditional null test, achieves more flexible measurements. However, figure error reconstruction in non-null tests has always been difficult due to the presence of retrace error. A novel method with reverse optimization is proposed for aspheric figure error reconstruction in a non-null interferometer. It is a generalized and effective approach basing on system modeling and polynomial fitting. An optimization function is set, with polynomial coefficients of the desired figure error as variables and those of the detected experimental wavefront as optimization targets. Through the reverse optimization process with iterative ray tracing, the optimal solutions can be extracted and the desired figure error is reconstructed with a simple fitting procedure. Numerical simulations verifying the high accuracy of the proposed method are presented with error considerations. A set of experiments have also been carried out to demonstrate the validity and repeatability of this method.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
  • (120.6650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Surface measurements, figure
  • (000.2658) General : Fundamental tests

Switchable and spacing-tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped silica fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifier loop mirror

  • Shuo Liu, Fengping Yan, Ting Feng, Beilei Wu, Ze Dong, and Gee-Kung Chang
  • received 04/24/2014; accepted 07/19/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 210585
  • [full text: PDF (559) KB)]
  • Abstract: A kind of switchable and spacing-tunable dual-wavelength thulium-doped silica fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifier loop mirror is presented and experimentally demonstrated. By adjusting the polarization states of the polarization controllers (PCs), stable dual-wavelength operation is obtained at 2 μm band. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is approximately 56 dB. The wavelength tuning is performed by applying static strain into the fiber Bragg grating. The tuning range from 0 nm to 5.14 nm is achieved for the dual-wavelength spacing. By adjusting the PCs properly, the fiber laser can also operate in single wavelength state with the OSNR for each wavelength more than 50dB.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2390) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics, infrared
  • (060.3735) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings
  • (060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

(DH3D) (INVITED) Random-Subset Fitting of Digital Holograms for Fast 3D Particle Tracking

  • Thomas Dimiduk, Rebecca Perry, Jerome Fung, and Vinothan Manoharan
  • received 04/28/2014; accepted 07/19/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 211015
  • [full text: PDF (393) KB)]
  • Abstract: Fitting scattering solutions to time series of digital holograms is a precise way to measure three-dimensional (3D) dynamics of microscale objects such as colloidal particles. However, this inverse-problem approach is much more computationally expensive than less precise methods such as numerical reconstruction. We show that the computational time can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more by fitting to a random subset of the pixels in a hologram. We demonstrate our algorithm on experimentally-measured holograms of micrometer-scale colloidal particles, and we show that 20-fold increases in speed can be attained with an average error of 10 nm in the particle positions, as compared to results from fitting the full frames. The method is straightforward to implement and works for any scattering model. It also enables a parallelization strategy wherein random-subset fitting is used to quickly determine initial guesses that are subsequently used to fit full frames in parallel. This approach may prove particularly useful for studying rare events, such as nucleation, that can only be captured with high frame rates over long times.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
  • (100.3190) Image processing : Inverse problems
  • (100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
  • (180.6900) Microscopy : Three-dimensional microscopy
  • (290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory
  • (090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

A novel swarm-based algorithm for phase unwrapping

  • Lucas da Silva Maciel and Armando Albertazzi G.
  • received 05/09/2014; accepted 07/19/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 211534
  • [full text: PDF (1292) KB)]
  • Abstract: A novel algorithm for phase unwrapping based on swarm intelligence is proposed. The algorithm was designed based on three main goals: maximum coverage of reliable information, focused effort for better efficiency and reliable unwrapping. Experiments were performed and a new agent was designed to follow a simple set of five rules in order to achieve collectively these goals. These rules consist of random walking for unwrapping and searching, ambiguity evaluation by comparing unwrapped regions and a replication behavior responsible for the good distribution of agents throughout the image. The results were comparable to the results from established methods. The swarm-based algorithm was able to suppress ambiguities better than a flood-fill algorithm without relying on lengthy processing times. In addition, future developments like parallel processing and better quality pixel evaluation present a great potential for the proposed method.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
  • (100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
  • (110.5086) Imaging systems : Phase unwrapping
  • (110.2650) Imaging systems : Fringe analysis

Balanced plane-mirror heterodyne interferometer with subnanometer periodic nonlinearity

  • Peng-Cheng HU, Peng CHEN, Xue-mei DING, and Jiu-bin TAN
  • received 05/09/2014; accepted 07/18/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 211564
  • [full text: PDF (1287) KB)]
  • Abstract: A balanced plane-mirror heterodyne interferometer with a polarizing beam splitter used to recombine reference and measurement beams was proposed to reduce periodic nonlinearity and to eliminate thermal error. Experimental results indicated that the periodic error due to ghost reflection was kept within ±36 pm, and the interferometer proposed was immune from thermal error.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.3930) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrological instrumentation
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (120.6810) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Thermal effects

On-line surface inspection using cylindrical lenses based spectral domain low-coherence interferometry

  • Feng Gao, Dawei Tang, and X. Jiang
  • received 05/07/2014; accepted 07/18/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 211612
  • [full text: PDF (1447) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a spectral domain low-coherence interferometry (SD-LCI) method that is effective for applications in on-line surface inspection because it can obtain a surface profile in a single shot. It has an advantage over existing spectral interferometry techniques by using cylindrical lenses as the objective lens in a Michelson interferometric configuration to enable the measurement of long profiles. Combined with a modern high speed CCD camera, general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) and multi-core processors computing technology, fast measurement can be achieved. By translating the tested sample during the measurement procedure, real-time surface inspection was implemented, which is proved by the large-scale 3D surface measurement in this paper. ZEMAX software is used to simulate the SD-LCI system and analyse the alignment errors. Two step height surfaces were measured and the captured interferograms were analyzed using a fast Fourier transform algorithm. Both 2D profile results and 3D surface maps closely align with the calibrated specifications given by the manufacturer. © 2012 Optical Society of America

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (070.4790) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spectrum analysis
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
  • (120.4630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical inspection

Measuring very low optical powers with a common camera

  • Silviu Popescu, Petronela Gheorghe, and Adrian Petris
  • received 06/19/2014; accepted 07/18/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 214418
  • [full text: PDF (1198) KB)]
  • Abstract: We introduce a procedure to calibrate an inexpensive, commercial camera, for optical power measurements. This allows the use of the camera as a very sensitive optical power meter that is able to measure powers down to fW level. A windowing technique, based on the selection of a region of interest from total sensor area, is used to maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio over a large range of the measured optical powers. Using this calibration procedure and the windowing technique we measured 25 fW of optical power with a common CMOS camera.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
  • (040.1490) Detectors : Cameras
  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology

Stray current sensor with cylindrical twisted fiber

  • Shaoyi Xu, Wei Li, Fangfang Xing, and Yuqiao Wang
  • received 05/22/2014; accepted 07/18/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 212591
  • [full text: PDF (1222) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, a stray current sensor with cylindrical twisted fiber is proposed. The quantitative method of linear birefringence on the sensing fiber is demonstrated. And the temperature-induced linear birefringence is about 4.63 deg per meter at 60 degrees centigrade. Then, the demand of circular birefringence is determined based on the polarization division multiplexing model, which is produced by the cylindrical twisted fiber. According to the simulation results, the produced circular birefringence is about 2116.9 deg, which is enough to suppress the linear birefringence. The temperature experiment results indicate the positive effect of the cylindrical twisted fiber, which controls the linear birefringence error within 0.945 × 10-5 per degree centigrade. Finally, the performance test results prove the cylindrical twisted fiber improves the accuracy of stray current sensor. And its repeatability and sensitivity are about 0.367% and 0.0261 /A, respectively.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
  • (260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
  • (280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors

Multi-Image Acquisition based Distance Sensor using Agile Laser Spot Beam

  • Nabeel Riza and M. Junaid Amin
  • received 03/26/2014; accepted 07/18/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 208996
  • [full text: PDF (1285) KB)]
  • Abstract: Presented is a novel laser-based distance measurement technique which uses multiple images-based spatial processing to enable distance measurements. Compared to the first generation distance sensor using spatial processing, the modified sensor is no longer hindered by the classic Rayleigh axial resolution limit for the propagating laser beam at their minimum beam waist location. The proposed high resolution distance sensor design uses an Electronically Controlled Variable Focus Lens (ECVFL) in combination with an optical imaging device such as a Charged-Coupled Device (CCD) to produce and capture different laser spot size images on a target with these beam spot sizes different from the minimal spot size possible at this target distance. By exploiting the unique relationship of the target located spot sizes with the varying ECVFL focal length for each target distance, the proposed distance sensor can compute the target distance with a distance measurement resolution better than the axial resolution via the Rayleigh resolution criterion. Using a 30 mW 633 nm He-Ne laser coupled with an electromagnetically actuated liquid ECVFL with a 20 cm focal length bias lens and using 5 spot images captured per target position by a CCD-based Nikon camera, a proof-of-concept proposed distance sensor is successfully implemented in the laboratory over target ranges from 10 cm to 100 cm with a demonstrated sub-cm axial resolution that is better than the axial Rayleigh resolution limit at these target distances. Applications for the proposed potentially cost-effective distance sensor are diverse and include industrial inspection and measurement and Three Dimensional (3-D) object shape mapping and imaging.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (150.5670) Machine vision : Range finding
  • (280.3400) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser range finder
  • (110.4155) Imaging systems : Multiframe image processing
  • (280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors

Simulated propagation of ultrashort pulses modulated by low-Fresnel number lenses using truncated series expansions

  • Ronan Mahon and J. Murphy
  • received 04/03/2014; accepted 07/18/2014; posted 07/21/2014; Doc. ID 209472
  • [full text: PDF (3366) KB)]
  • Abstract: Numerical simulation of the paraxial propagation of pulses modulated by lenses is demonstrated using the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) series expansion method. The technique allows for relatively swift evaluation of the paraxial behaviour of individual monochromatic fields modulated by arbitrary phase and amplitude profiles, which can then be superimposed via the inverse Fourier transform to determine the structure of a modulated pulse. The calculation of an ultrashort plane wave pulse modulated by spherical, diffractive, and conical lenses is described using this method which is most effective with the application of vector and matrix techniques available in many popular numerical software packages, enabling comparatively swift evaluation of 2-D spatiotemporal pulse structures. A description of the convergence of the LG expansion to the results of the conventional integral techniques is presented for a conical lens under illumination by a continuous wave, from which a simple but robust criterion for axial convergence in problems of circular symmetry is presented.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (260.2030) Physical optics : Dispersion
  • (320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses
  • (050.1965) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive lenses
  • (070.7345) Fourier optics and signal processing : Wave propagation

Dual-channel SD-OCT system based on 3×3 fiber coupler for extended imaging range

  • Cuixia Dai, Xinyu Chai, Shanhui Fan, Qiushi Ren, Chuanqing Zhou, and Peng Xi
  • received 05/22/2014; accepted 07/17/2014; posted 07/18/2014; Doc. ID 212602
  • [full text: PDF (1460) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrated a dual-channel multiplexing spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system based on a 3×3 fiber coupler for extended imaging range of whole human eye depth, with single light source and spectrometer. OCT images of anterior segments of human eye were sequentially performed and constructed to demonstrate an extended depth range as large as 15 mm in air. Good quality OCT image of whole anterior segment of eye was present. Furthermore, the whole eye segmental imaging was performed, and ocular distances were calculated to show the validation of the system for whole eye morphological measurement.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
  • (170.4470) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmology
  • (170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography
  • (170.4580) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical diagnostics for medicine

Improvement method of integral imaging quality based on aperture-tunable lens array

  • JianLei Zhang, XiaoRui Wang, YuJiao Chen, Shuo Yu, QiPing Zhang, and ZhaoHui Li
  • received 06/05/2014; accepted 07/17/2014; posted 07/18/2014; Doc. ID 213570
  • [full text: PDF (791) KB)]
  • Abstract: A method for the viewing quality improvement of integral imaging is proposed by using aperture-tunable lens array. The proposed method uses a liquid crystal panel without backlighting unit to tune the aperture of lens array dynamically. The shape and transmittance of the aperture can be controlled arbitrarily by programming the state of the pixels on the liquid crystal panel. Combining the temporal multiplexing technique, the viewing quality can be improved by the after-image effect of human eye. Moreover, the relationships between the lateral resolution and the aperture tuning pattern, the depth of field and the aperture tuning pattern are derived, respectively. The product of the depth of field, lateral resolution square and the lateral viewing range (PDRV) is proposed as a new figure of merit for an integral imaging system. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed method.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
  • (110.4190) Imaging systems : Multiple imaging
  • (120.2040) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Displays

(LIM2014) Rocking Motion of an Optical Wing: Theory

  • Alexandra Artusio-Glimpse, Daniel Schuster, Mario Gomes, and Grover Swartzlander
  • received 02/12/2014; accepted 07/17/2014; posted 07/18/2014; Doc. ID 206290
  • [full text: PDF (729) KB)]
  • Abstract: The intensity-dependent rocking frequency of an illuminated semicylindrical refractive rod (or “optical wing”) on a flat, non-slip surface is investigated. Both longitudinal and transverse radiation pressure forces (scatter and lift forces), as well as radiation pressure torque transform the mechanical system into one having a bistable potential energy above a critical intensity. The equation of motion may be written as a parametrically driven nonlinear bistable harmonic oscillator, resulting in complex rocking dynamics. The effects of linear and sinusoidal intensity modulation schemes are explored, and experimental conditions to verify these results are discussed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices
  • (130.4815) Integrated optics : Optical switching devices
  • (350.4855) Other areas of optics : Optical tweezers or optical manipulation
  • (190.4975) Nonlinear optics : Parametric processes
  • (120.4880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optomechanics

(Sandia) Ray tracing in a finite element domain using nodal basis functions

  • Karl Schrader, Samuel Subia, John Myre, and Kenneth Summers
  • received 03/13/2014; accepted 07/17/2014; posted 07/18/2014; Doc. ID 208169
  • [full text: PDF (886) KB)]
  • Abstract: A method is presented for tracing rays through a medium discretized as finite element volumes. The ray-trajectory equations are cast into the local element coordinate frame and the full finite-element interpolation is used to determine instantaneous index gradient for the ray-path integral equation. The FEM methodology is also used to interpolate local surface deformations and the surface normal vector for computing the refraction angle when launching rays into the volume, and again when rays exit the medium. The procedure is applied to a finite element model of an optic with a severe refractive index gradient, and the results compared to the closed-form gradient ray-path integral approach.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.2710) Geometric optics : Inhomogeneous optical media
  • (120.5710) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Refraction
  • (120.6810) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Thermal effects
  • (140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects
  • (080.5692) Geometric optics : Ray trajectories in inhomogeneous media

Tunable wavelength terahertz polarization converter based on quartz waveplates

  • A. Kaveev, G. Kropotov, D. Tsypishka, I. Tzibizov, I. Vinerov, and E. Kaveeva
  • received 04/01/2014; accepted 07/17/2014; posted 07/18/2014; Doc. ID 209267
  • [full text: PDF (5775) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present the results of calculation and experimental testing of the tunable wavelength terahertz polarization converter (TWPC) represented by set of plane-parallel birefringent plates with in-plane birefringence axis. An experimental device has been produced and tested. The calculations show that the effect of interference between the interfaces, including air gaps, may be neglected. Considered device may be used as the simple narrow achromatic waveplate, or Solc band pass filter for the specified wavelength.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
  • (230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices
  • (040.2235) Detectors : Far infrared or terahertz

Fluence ablation threshold dependence on tin impurities in commercial soda-lime glass

  • Daniel Nieto, Justo Arines, and Maria Teresa Flores-Arias
  • received 04/01/2014; accepted 07/17/2014; posted 07/18/2014; Doc. ID 209275
  • [full text: PDF (904) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper we study the reduction in the fluence ablation threshold induced by the tin impurities incorporated in float soda-lime glass during the fabrication process. The laser system used in the experiments was Nd:YVO4 Rofin Powerline laser operating at 1064nm. The fluence ablation thresholds found were 112 J/cm2 for the tin-side and 920 J/cm2 for non-tin side, which means a reduction of nearly one order of magnitude. The fluence ablation threshold reduction permits the manufacturing of narrower grooves with small level of roughness, allows obtaining quality elements in low-cost soda-lime substrates.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
  • (160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials

Adaptive fiber-optics collimator based on flexible hinges

  • Dong Zhi, Yanxing Ma, Pengfei Ma, Lei Si, Xiaolin Wang, and Pu Zhou
  • received 04/04/2014; accepted 07/17/2014; posted 07/18/2014; Doc. ID 209466
  • [full text: PDF (1207) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this manuscript, we present the new design of adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by utilizing piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricate a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap’s deviation and resonance frequency of the device are measured. Experimental results show that the new type of AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. Due to that fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, we believe that the new presented structure has great potential in the aspect of tip-tilt controlling in high power fiber laser system.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
  • (060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
  • (140.3298) Lasers and laser optics : Laser beam combining

Phase discontinuity predictions using a machine-learning trained kernel

  • Firas Sawaf and Roger Groves
  • received 04/28/2014; accepted 07/17/2014; posted 07/18/2014; Doc. ID 210938
  • [full text: PDF (869) KB)]
  • Abstract: Phase unwrapping is one of the key steps of interferogram analysis, and its accuracy relies primarily on the correct identification of phase discontinuities. This can be especially challenging for inherently noisy phase fields, such as those produced through shearography and other speckle based interferometry techniques. We showed in a recent work how a relatively small 10x10 pixel kernel was trained, through machine learning methods, for predicting the locations of phase discontinuities within noisy wrapped phase maps. We describe here how this kernel can be applied in a sliding-window fashion, such that each pixel undergoes 100 phase-discontinuity examinations - one test for each of its possible positions relative to its neighbours within the kernel’s extent. We explore how the resulting predictions can be accumulated, and aggregated through a voting system, and demonstrate that the reliability of this method outperforms processing the image by segmenting it into more conventional 10x10 non-overlapping tiles. When used in this way, we demonstrate that our 10x10 pixel kernel is large enough for effective processing of full-field interferograms. Avoiding, thus, the need for substantially more formidable computational resources which otherwise would have been necessary for training a kernel of a significantly larger size.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.5010) Image processing : Pattern recognition
  • (120.2650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fringe analysis
  • (120.4290) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Nondestructive testing
  • (100.4996) Image processing : Pattern recognition, neural networks
  • (100.5088) Image processing : Phase unwrapping
  • (120.6165) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Speckle interferometry, metrology

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