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Early Posting

Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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Articles 1 to 20 of 148 Next Page >>


Development and Application of Spherically Curved Charge-Coupled Device Imagers

  • James Gregory, Ronak Shah, Richard Osgood, Linda Mendenhall, Victor Dolat, Andrew Loomis, Anthony Smith, Eric Pearce, Richard lambour, Deborah Woods, Alan Decew, Steven Forman, Carmen DeFranzo, Harry Clark, and Keith Warner
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 02/27/2015; posted 02/27/2015; Doc. ID 220560
  • [full text: PDF (3002) KB)]
  • Abstract: Operation of a CCD imager on a curved focal surface offers advantages to flat focal planes, especially for lightweight, relatively simple optical systems. The first advantage is that the modulation transfer function can approach diffraction-limited performance for a spherical focal surface employed in large field-of-view or large-format imagers. A second one is that a curved focal surface maintains more uniform illumination as a function of radius from the field center. Examples of applications of curved imagers, described here, include a small compact imager and the large curved array used in the Space Surveillance Telescope. The operational characteristics and mechanical limits of an imager deformed to a 15-mm radius are also described.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
  • (040.1520) Detectors : CCD, charge-coupled device
  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (110.6770) Imaging systems : Telescopes
  • (220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
  • (220.1000) Optical design and fabrication : Aberration compensation

Diode pumped passively dual-wavelength Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser using graphene oxide as the saturable absorber

  • Bingyuan Zhang, qi song, guoju wang, Wenjun Wang, minghong wang, Qing-li Zhang, guihua sun, Yong Bo, and Qinjun Peng
  • received 12/23/2014; accepted 02/26/2015; posted 02/27/2015; Doc. ID 231348
  • [full text: PDF (1331) KB)]
  • Abstract: The performance of a diode-end-pumped passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:GYSGG laser operating at 1057.28 nm and 1060.65 nm with graphene oxide as the saturable absorber was demonstrated. The maximum dual-wavelength average output power of 521 mW was achieved under the absorbed pump power of 5.4 W, corresponding to the optical-to-optical conversion and slope efficiency of 9.8% and 21%, respectively. The minimum pulse width was 115ns with the pulse repetition rate of 338kHz .

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
  • (140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
  • (140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
  • (140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
  • (140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state

A color-tunable LED based on quantum dot suspension

  • Zhenyue Luo, Shin-Tson Wu, Su Xu, Yifan Liu, and Haiwei Chen
  • received 12/30/2014; accepted 02/26/2015; posted 02/27/2015; Doc. ID 231656
  • [full text: PDF (801) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a color-tunable LED consisting of a blue LED as light source and quantum dot (QD) suspension as color conversion medium. The LED color temperature can be controlled by varying the liquid volume of each QD suspension with different photoluminescence colors. We simulate and optimize the light efficiency and color quality of the color-tunable LED, and also fabricated a prototype to prove concept. The proposed color-tunable LED exhibits several advantages, such as excellent color rendering property, simple structure and driving mechanism, as well as high energy efficiency. Its potential applications include circadian rhythm regulation and healthy lighting.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
  • (230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
  • (330.1715) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, rendering and metamerism

Holographic Assessment of Self-Phase Modulation and Blooming in a Thermal Medium

  • Partha Banerjee, Ujitha abeywickrema, and Neil Banerjee
  • received 01/22/2015; accepted 02/26/2015; posted 02/27/2015; Doc. ID 233087
  • [full text: PDF (1929) KB)]
  • Abstract: The use of a low-power laser beam to characterize self-phase modulation and bubble formation during thermal blooming, as well as manipulation of the bubbles, is reported. First, a low power 633 nm laser beam is used to characterize the induced refractive index profile during self-phase modulation of a focused 514 nm pump beam in absorbing liquid media, e.g., a solution of red dye in isopropyl alcohol. The induced phase change is also characterized using digital holography with the 633 nm source as the probe and reference. During thermal blooming at higher pump powers, bubble formation occurs in the liquid. Using a modified setup which minimizes the effects of gravity, buoyancy and convection, stable bubbles are generated. These are characterized using in-line digital holography with the 633 nm probe beam. It is shown that the bubble size depends on exposure time of the pump, and that the bubble can be steered by moving a focused low power laser beam. Finally, possible applications of these thermally generated bubbles are discussed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (090.2880) Holography : Holographic interferometry
  • (190.4870) Nonlinear optics : Photothermal effects
  • (090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

Titanium dioxide slot waveguides for visible

  • Markus Häyrinen, Matthieu Roussey, Markku Kuittinen, Seppo Honkanen, and Antti Säynätjoki
  • received 01/12/2015; accepted 02/25/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 232264
  • [full text: PDF (1941) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present the first experimental demonstration of a titanium dioxide slot waveguide operating in the visible range of light. Ring resonators based on slot waveguides were designed, fabricated and characterized for λ ⋍ 650 nm. The fabrication method includes atomic layer deposition, electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The required narrow slot widths of a few tens of nanometers were achieved by using a conformal atomic layer re-coating technique. This unique feature size reduction technique was applied after the final etching step.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
  • (230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
  • (220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication

High time-bandwidth product and high repetition rate period signal generation based on spectral-hole burning crystal

  • Song Wang, XiuRong Ma, Yuqing Liang, and Yunlong Shan
  • received 01/19/2015; accepted 02/25/2015; posted 02/26/2015; Doc. ID 232586
  • [full text: PDF (876) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper proposes an approach as for the generation of high time-bandwidth product (TBP) and high repetition rate pulse compression period signa. The complex spectral grating is created through a reference pulse and multiple programming pulses with different start frequency. As the multiple probe chirped pulses with different start frequency interact with the complex spectral gratings, a high TBP and repetition rate period signal is thus generated. This technique has the potential to generate time-bandwidth product of when the repetition rate reaches up to tens of GHz. At the end of this paper, two simulation results of pulse compression period signal with TBP and 20GHz repetition rate are presented.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (320.5520) Ultrafast optics : Pulse compression
  • (320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping

Absolute Calibration of a Spectrometer using Terrestrial Solar Radiation

  • Kevin O'Donnell and Veneranda Garces-Chavez
  • received 12/17/2014; accepted 02/25/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 230986
  • [full text: PDF (889) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a method to provide absolute intensity calibration of a common low-resolution, wideband optical spectrometer. Terrestrial solar radiation is employed as the source of illumination and the spectrometer output is compared to a solar spectral standard to determine its calibration. Over three days of observation the procedure is demonstrated to yield reproducible results, and other evidence of calibration accuracy is presented.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
  • (300.6190) Spectroscopy : Spectrometers

Simulation, fabrication and characterization of a tunable electrowetting-based lens with wedge-shaped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) dielectric layer

  • Hamid Latifi, Mohammadreza Salehi Moghaddam, Mohammad Sadegh Cheri, and Hamidreza Shahraki
  • received 09/22/2014; accepted 02/25/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 223580
  • [full text: PDF (988) KB)]
  • Abstract: Microlenses with tunable focal length have wide applications in optofluidic devices. This work presents a numerical and experimental investigation on a tunable electrowetting-based concave lens. Optical properties such as focal length of the lens and visibility of images were investigated numerically and experimentally. A finite element analysis and a ZEMAX simulation were used for determination of surface profile and focal length of the lens. The results show that the theoretical surface profile and focal length of the lens are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The lens has a wide tuning focal length equal to 6.5 (cm). Because the PDMS layer is wedge-shaped (as both dielectric and hydrophobic layer) lower applied voltage is needed. A commercial program was used to find the focal length of the lens from maximum visibility value by tuning the applied voltage.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.3630) Geometric optics : Lenses
  • (100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis

Analysing closed-fringe images using 2D Fan wavelets

  • Sam Dehaeck, Yannis Tsoumpas, and Pierre Colinet
  • received 11/04/2014; accepted 02/24/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 226134
  • [full text: PDF (11277) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, it will be shown how the use of two 2D Fan wavelets to analyse closed-fringe images can lead to a relatively fast and exceptionally noise-resistant algorithm capable of extracting not only local phase but also local frequency information. Our algorithm is up to 10 times faster than the current state-of-the-art in Wavelet processing techniques and even up to 30 times faster than ’Windowed Fourier’ Transform programs which achieve similar noiseresiliency figures. This improvement is mainly achieved by the use of Fan wavelets instead of Morlet wavelets, but a more efficient scale-space discretisation strategy is also described and three different alternatives are suggested capable of solving the phase sign ambiguity problem in a quick and efficient manner. Finally, the application of the algorithm to real and numerically generated images shows that a precision of 1/30th of a fringe is achievable for noise levels going up to 1/5th of the input contrast.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.2650) Image processing : Fringe analysis
  • (100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
  • (100.7410) Image processing : Wavelets
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (120.6160) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Speckle interferometry
  • (100.3175) Image processing : Interferometric imaging

Electromagnetically Induced Phase Grating in RF-driven cascade-type atomic systems

  • Rasoul Sadighi-Bonabi and tayebeh naseri
  • received 09/11/2014; accepted 02/24/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 222672
  • [full text: PDF (542) KB)]
  • Abstract: A new scheme for investigating electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) in four-level cascade-type of 87Rb cold atoms is proposed. The novel result indicates that the diffraction efficiency of phase grating is dramatically enhanced due to presence of RF-driven field and the diffraction efficiency up to 34% can be obtained. Furthermore, it is found that the frequency detuning of the applied laser fields with the corresponding atomic transition and the interaction length can improve the efficiency of the phase grating in the present atomic model. This investigation has potential applications in all-optical communication processes.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics

Ultimate Sensing Resolution of Water Temperature by Remote Raman Spectroscopy

  • Myoung-Kyu Oh, Hoonsoo Kang, NanEi Yu, Bok Hyeon Kim, Joon Heon Kim, Joon Seok Lee, and Gi Woo Hyung
  • received 11/21/2014; accepted 02/24/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 228351
  • [full text: PDF (707) KB)]
  • Abstract: The limit of sensing resolution of water temperature by remote Raman spectroscopy was investigated experimentally. A remote Raman spectrometer, which employed a telescope of 20 cm in pupil size and the SHG of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, was used for the measurement. By analyzing the broad O-H stretching Raman band located near 3500 cm-1, a parameter which is in 2nd order polynomial relation with water temperature from 13 to 50oC could be obtained. The resolution of our remote Raman temperature sensor was better than ±0.2oC with measurement time shorter than 10 seconds. The influence of the Raman signal’s signal-to-noise ratio on the resolution and salinity effect on the accuracy of temperature sensing were also investigated.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (300.6450) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Raman
  • (280.6780) Remote sensing and sensors : Temperature

Multiple-image encryption based on triple interferences for flexibly decrypting high-quality images

  • Nam Kim, Wei-Na Li, Meilan Piao, and Anh-Hoang Phan
  • received 11/27/2014; accepted 02/24/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 228497
  • [full text: PDF (1476) KB)]
  • Abstract: We proposed a multiple-image encryption (MIE) scheme based on triple interferences for flexibly decrypting high-quality images. Each image is discretionarily decrypted without decrypting a series of other image earlier. Since it does not involve any cascaded encryption orders, the image can be decrypted flexibly by using the proposed method. Computer simulation demonstrated that the proposed method’s running time is approximately less than 1/4 of the previous similar MIE method. Moreover, the decrypted image is perfectly correlated with the original image, and due to many phase functions serving as decryption keys, the proposed method is more secure and robust.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (090.0090) Holography : Holography
  • (090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
  • (260.3160) Physical optics : Interference
  • (100.4998) Image processing : Pattern recognition, optical security and encryption

Unsupervised defect detection in textiles based on Fourier analysis and wavelet shrinkage

  • Guang-Hua Hu, Qing-Hui Wang, and Guo-Hui Zhang
  • received 12/04/2014; accepted 02/24/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 228767
  • [full text: PDF (2533) KB)]
  • Abstract: An unsupervised approach for inspection of defects in textiles by applying Fourier analysis and wavelet shrinkage is proposed. It does not rely on any reference images. For each sample under inspection, the periodic pattern contained in the image is firstly eliminated by zero-masking their dominant frequency components that show high gradient values in the spectrum. The Fourier restored image is then denoised using wavelet shrinkage, and the approximation coefficients and the processed wavelet coefficients are individually back transformed to produce a pair of reconstructions, from which either the low or the high frequency information of a defect can be segmented using a simple thresholding processing. The performance of the proposed method has been extensively evaluated by a variety of samples with different defect types and texture backgrounds. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by the experimental results in comparison with other methods.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
  • (100.7410) Image processing : Wavelets
  • (150.3040) Machine vision : Industrial inspection
  • (100.3008) Image processing : Image recognition, algorithms and filters
  • (100.4994) Image processing : Pattern recognition, image transforms

Phase-Sensitive Noise Suppression in a Photoacoustic Sensor based on Acoustic Circular Membrane Modes

  • Mikael Lassen, Jan Petersen, Anders Brusch, and David Balslev-Clausen
  • received 12/04/2014; accepted 02/24/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 228799
  • [full text: PDF (1984) KB)]
  • Abstract: A photoacoustic (PA) sensor based on higher order acoustic modes is demonstrated. The PA sensor is designed to enhance the gas-detection performance and simultaneously suppress ambient noise sources (e.g. flow noise, electrical noise and external acoustic noise). Two microphones are used and positioned such that the PA signals are ($\pi$) out of phase. Ambient acoustic noise are approximately in the same phase and will be subtracted and thus improve the SNR. In addition, by placing the gas in- and outlets so that the gas flows through the node of the first higher order membrane mode the coupling of flow noise is approximately 20 dB lower compared with flow through the fundamental mode at 5 L/min. The noise reduction and thus the increase in sensitivity is demonstrated by measuring vibrational lines of methanol and methane using a broadband interband cascade laser emitting radiation at 3.38 $\mu$m. A signal-to-noise improvement of 20 (26 dB) using higher order modes are demonstrated compared with the fundamental mode. The maximum normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient is 1.1 $\times 10^{-6}$ W cm$^{-1}$ Hz$^{1/2}$ for a flow of 5 L/min. It is anticipated that the noise cancelation strategy may find use in many practical industrial and environmental PA sensors, where ambient noise sources plays a crucial role for the absolute sensitive.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
  • (300.6430) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, photothermal
  • (110.5125) Imaging systems : Photoacoustics
  • (010.0280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Remote sensing and sensors

Orthonormal polynomials for annular pupil including a cross-shaped obstruction

  • Fengzhao Dai, Xiangzhao Wang, and Osami Sasaki
  • received 12/12/2014; accepted 02/24/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 230522
  • [full text: PDF (544) KB)]
  • Abstract: By non-recursive matrix method using the Zernike circle polynomials as the basis functions, we derived a set of polynomials up to 4th order which is approximately orthonormal for optical systems with annular pupil having a cross-shaped obstruction. The performance of the polynomials is compared with the strictly orthonormal polynomials with some numerical examples.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.7350) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Wave-front sensing
  • (110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
  • (120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
  • (220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
  • (220.1010) Optical design and fabrication : Aberrations (global)
  • (080.1005) Geometric optics : Aberration expansions

An electrowetting-actuated optical switch based on total internal reflection

  • Qiong-Hua Wang, Chao Liu, Li Yao, Di Wang, and Lei Li
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 02/23/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 232059
  • [full text: PDF (753) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate a liquid optical switch based on total internal reflection. Two indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes are fabricated on the bottom substrate. A conductive liquid (Liquid-1) is placed on one side of the chamber and surrounded by a density-matched silicone oil (Liquid-2). In initial state, when the light beam illuminates the interface of the two liquids, it just meets the conditions of total internal reflection. The light is totally reflected by Liquid-2, and the device shows light-off state. When we apply a voltage to the other side of the ITO electrode, Liquid-1 stretched towards to this side of the substrate and the curvature of the liquid-liquid interface changes. The light beam is refracted by Liquid-1 and the device shows light-on state. So the device can achieve the functions of an optical switch. Because the light beam can be totally reflected by the liquid, the device can attain 100% light intensity attenuation. Our experiments show that the response time from light-on (off) to light-off (on) are 130ms and 132ms, respectively. The proposed optical switch has potential applications in variable optical attenuators, information displays and light shutters.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
  • (230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
  • (250.6715) Optoelectronics : Switching

Compressive sensing for direct millimeter-wave holographic imaging

  • Lingbo Qiao, Yingxin Wang, Ziran Zhao, Zhiqiang Chen, and Zongjun Shen
  • received 10/06/2014; accepted 02/23/2015; posted 02/27/2015; Doc. ID 224447
  • [full text: PDF (3140) KB)]
  • Abstract: Direct millimeter-wave (MMW) holographic imaging, which provide both the amplitude and phase information by using heterodyne mixing technique, is considered as a powerful tool for personnel security surveillance. However, the imaging systems suffer from the problems of high cost or relatively long data acquisition period for the array or single-pixel MMW systems. In this paper, compressive sensing (CS) which aims at sparse sampling is extended to the direct MMW holographic imaging for reducing antenna units or the data acquisition time. Firstly, following the scalar diffraction theory, an exact derivation of the direct MMW holographic reconstruction is presented. Then the CS reconstruction strategies for complex-valued MMW images are introduced based on the derived reconstruction formula. To pursue the applicability for the near field MMW imaging and more complicated imaging objects, three sparsity basis, total variance, wavelet and curvelet, are evaluated for the CS reconstruction of MMW images. We also discuss different sampling patterns for single-pixel, linear array and two-dimensional array MMW imaging systems. Both simulations and experiments demonstrate the feasibility of recovering MMW images from 1/2 or even 1/4 measurements of the Nyquist rate.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
  • (090.1995) Holography : Digital holography
  • (100.3200) Image processing : Inverse scattering

Gain and bandwidth investigation in a near zero ultra-flat dispersion PCF for optical parametric amplification around the communication wavelength

  • Partha Maji
  • received 11/26/2014; accepted 02/23/2015; posted 02/25/2015; Doc. ID 228636
  • [full text: PDF (2338) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this article, we explore the fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) gain and bandwidth spectra of near zero ultra flattened PCF around the communication wavelength. The parametric gain and spectral bandwidth has been explored for all the three zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) of the near zero ultra flat fiber. Our numerical analysis establishes a dispersion profile with D=0±0.35ps/nm/km for a bandwidth of 440nm around the communication wavelength to fully exploit the four-wave mixing effect with three ZDWs for broadband applications. It has been observed that the broader gain spectrum of FOPAs can be achieved with the near-zero and ultra-flattened dispersion curve with proper tuning of the pumping condition. A broader bandwidth with sufficient peak gain value has been achieved with small negative anomalous dispersion (β2≤0) and positive value of 4th order dispersion parameter (+ve β4) around the pumping wavelength. Wider bandwidth of the parametric amplifier has been observed around the second ZDW with a negative slope of the dispersion curve. A total bandwidth ≈520nm could be achieved with the ultra flat dispersion nature of the optimized PCF. The design methodology of achieving wider gain by tuning the pumping wavelength for favorable higher order dispersion parameters would be very useful for future dispersion engineered devices.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
  • (230.2035) Optical devices : Dispersion compensation devices
  • (060.4005) Fiber optics and optical communications : Microstructured fibers
  • (060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

(ISSR2014) Outdoor scene reflectance measurements using a Bragg-grating based hyperspectral imager

  • Jia Eckhard, Timo Eckhard, Eva Valero, Juan Luis Nieves, and Estibaliz Garrote Contreras
  • received 11/24/2014; accepted 02/23/2015; posted 02/23/2015; Doc. ID 225395
  • [full text: PDF (2238) KB)]
  • Abstract: The acquisition of spectral reflectance factor image data in outdoor environment is a challenging task, mostly due to non-static scene content and illumination. In this work, we propose a work-flow for this task using a commercial Bragg-grating based hyperspectral imager that can capture the visible and near-infrared part of the light spectrum. To our knowledge, we are the first who use this technology for outdoor spectral reflectance factor imaging. The work-flow involves focus position and exposure time estimation, illumination scaling and image registration, among other procedures. Most of them generally apply to hyperspectral imaging, while some are specific to a Bragg-grating based hyperspectral imaging device when dealing with specific challenges in outdoor environment. We have conducted some experiments to evaluate the quality of the acquired image data and discussed some limitations of the technology for spectral imaging of outdoor scenes. Fourteen urban scene spectral images acquired using the proposed approach are already publicly available to the scientific community under a Creative Commons license.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
  • (110.4234) Imaging systems : Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging

Beam diffraction by a resistive half-plane

  • Yusuf Umul
  • received 12/23/2014; accepted 02/23/2015; posted 02/23/2015; Doc. ID 231400
  • [full text: PDF (642) KB)]
  • Abstract: The scattering of a Gaussian beam by a resistive half-screen is investigated. The far field approximation is used in the evaluation of the geometrical optics and diffracted waves. The uniform expression of the diffracted waves by the resistive half-plane, which was found with the Sommerfeld-Maliuzhinets method, is obtained. The scattered fields for the case of the beam incidence are evaluated with the technique of complex point source. The resultant wave expressions are examined numerically.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
  • (140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
  • (290.5825) Scattering : Scattering theory

Articles 1 to 20 of 148 Next Page >>

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