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Advances in Optics and Photonics

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  • Editor: Bahaa E. A. Saleh
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2009

Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications

Gilberto Brambilla, Fei Xu, Peter Horak, Yongmin Jung, Fumihito Koizumi, Neil P. Sessions, Elena Koukharenko, Xian Feng, Ganapathy S. Murugan, James S. Wilkinson, and David J. Richardson  »View Author Affiliations


Advances in Optics and Photonics, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 107-161 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AOP.1.000107


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Abstract

Microwires and nanowires have been manufactured by using a wide range of bottom-up techniques such as chemical or physical vapor deposition and top-down processes such as fiber drawing. Among these techniques, the manufacture of wires from optical fibers provides the longest, most uniform and robust nanowires. Critically, the small surface roughness and the high-homogeneity associated with optical fiber nanowires (OFNs) provide low optical loss and allow the use of nanowires for a wide range of new applications for communications, sensing, lasers, biology, and chemistry. OFNs offer a number of outstanding optical and mechanical properties, including (1) large evanescent fields, (2) high-nonlinearity, (3) strong confinement, and (4) low-loss interconnection to other optical fibers and fiberized components. OFNs are fabricated by adiabatically stretching optical fibers and thus preserve the original optical fiber dimensions at their input and output, allowing ready splicing to standard fibers. A review of the manufacture of OFNs is presented, with a particular emphasis on their applications. Three different groups of applications have been envisaged: (1) devices based on the strong confinement or nonlinearity, (2) applications exploiting the large evanescent field, and (3) devices involving the taper transition regions. The first group includes supercontinuum generators, a range of nonlinear optical devices, and optical trapping. The second group comprises knot, loop, and coil resonators and their applications, sensing and particle propulsion by optical pressure. Finally, mode filtering and mode conversion represent applications based on the taper transition regions. Among these groups of applications, devices exploiting the OFN-based resonators are possibly the most interesting; because of the large evanescent field, when OFNs are coiled onto themselves the mode propagating in the wire interferes with itself to give a resonator. In contrast with the majority of high-Q resonators manufactured by other means, the OFN microresonator does not have major issues with input–output coupling and presents a completely integrated fiberized solution. OFNs can be used to manufacture loop and coil resonators with Q factors that, although still far from the predicted value of 10 9 , are well in excess of 10 5 . The input–output pigtails play a major role in shaping the resonator response and can be used to maximize the Q factor over a wide range of coupling parameters. Finally, temporal stability and robustness issues are discussed, and a solution to optical degradation issues is presented.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: August 21, 2008
Revised Manuscript: November 17, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: November 17, 2008
Published: January 30, 2009

Virtual Issues
(2009) Advances in Optics and Photonics

Citation
Gilberto Brambilla, Fei Xu, Peter Horak, Yongmin Jung, Fumihito Koizumi, Neil P. Sessions, Elena Koukharenko, Xian Feng, Ganapathy S. Murugan, James S. Wilkinson, and David J. Richardson, "Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications," Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 107-161 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/aop/abstract.cfm?URI=aop-1-1-107


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