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Advances in Optics and Photonics

Advances in Optics and Photonics


  • Editor: Bahaa E. A. Saleh
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 3 — Sep. 30, 2012

High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics

Connie J. Chang-Hasnain and Weijian Yang  »View Author Affiliations

Advances in Optics and Photonics, Vol. 4, Issue 3, pp. 379-440 (2012)

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A new class of planar optics has emerged using subwavelength gratings with a large refractive index contrast, herein referred to as high-contrast gratings (HCGs). This seemingly simple structure lends itself to extraordinary properties, which can be designed top-down based on intuitive guidelines. The HCG is a single layer of high-index material that can be as thin as 15% of one wavelength. It can be designed to reflect or transmit nearly completely and with specific optical phase over a broad spectral range and/or various incident beam angles. We present a simple theory providing an intuitive phase selection rule to explain the extraordinary features. Our analytical results agree well not only with numerical simulations but also experimental data. The HCG has made easy fabrication of surface-normal optical devices possible, including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), tunable VCSELs, and tunable filters. HCGs can be designed to result in high-quality-factor (Q) resonators with surface-normal output, which is promising for wafer-scale lasers and optical sensors. Spatially chirped HCGs are shown to be excellent focusing reflectors and lenses with very high numerical apertures. This field has seen rapid advances in experimental demonstrations and theoretical results. We provide an overview of the underlying new physics and the latest results of devices.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: April 16, 2012
Revised Manuscript: June 30, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: July 2, 2012
Published: September 4, 2012

Virtual Issues
(2012) Advances in Optics and Photonics

Connie J. Chang-Hasnain and Weijian Yang, "High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics," Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 379-440 (2012)

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