Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources have provided the analytical spectroscopist with a relatively simple means of performing quantitative analyses at very low concentration levels. Pneumatic solution nebulizers employed with ICP systems are a frequent source of problems. Presently available nebulizers demand that sample solutions contain a low percentage of dissolved solids and that there be no suspended solids which may cause flow restrictions or blockage. Many times, samples having one or both of these limitations require analysis. Although the samples themselves are not ideal for ICP analysis the concentration levels sought make this analytical method attractive, and an effort to find a nebulizer suitable for solutions with high percentages of dissolved solids and/or suspended solids was begun.
James F. Wolcott and Constance Butler Sobel, "A Simple Nebulizer for an Inductively Coupled Plasma System," Appl. Spectrosc. 32, 591-593 (1978)