A graphite furnace continuum source atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of Cd in urine at the sub-ppb level. Sample preparation includes a simple 1:1 dilution with nitric acid followed by digestion in a water bath at 60°C for one hour in a sealed plastic vial. The method detection limit observed for Cd is 0.03 ng/mL. Three hundred urine samples collected from post-menopausal women in the Winston-Salem area have been analyzed.
Reshan Fernando, Bradley T. Jones, and Fanny K. Ennever, "Determination of Cadmium in Urine by Continuum Source Atomic Absorption Spectrometry," Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1696-1699 (1993)