At Naval Base Point Loma in San Diego, California, a canyon had been filled with construction debris and automotive scrap residue (ASR), the latter of which included lead acid batteries. A magnetic survey and induced potential (IP)/DC resistivity survey showed the presence of anomalies at the western end of the site where historic records indicated that the ASR had been placed. Lead concentration depth profiles were obtained in situ and in real time at the site using a direct push fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (FO-LIBS) sensor probe. Lead, along with strontium and titanium, was detected at depths of 7 to 8 m bgs. These results provided confirmation that the magnetic/IP anomalies at the site are due to ASR.
P. A. Mosier-Boss and S. H. Lieberman, "Detection of Lead Derived from Automotive Scrap Residue Using a Direct Push Fiber-Optic Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Metal Sensor," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 1445-1456 (2005)