At Naval Base Point Loma in San Diego, California, a canyon had been filled with construction debris and automotive scrap residue (ASR), the latter of which included lead acid batteries. A magnetic survey and induced potential (IP)/DC resistivity survey showed the presence of anomalies at the western end of the site where historic records indicated that the ASR had been placed. Lead concentration depth profiles were obtained <i>in situ</i> and in real time at the site using a direct push fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (FO-LIBS) sensor probe. Lead, along with strontium and titanium, was detected at depths of 7 to 8 m bgs. These results provided confirmation that the magnetic/IP anomalies at the site are due to ASR.
P. A. Mosier-Boss and S. H. Lieberman, "Detection of Lead Derived from Automotive Scrap Residue Using a Direct Push Fiber-Optic Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Metal Sensor," Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 1445-1456 (2005)