Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was compared directly to independent standard analytical techniques for the routine measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) yields from cigarette sidestream smoke. The FT-IR instrument was configured in-line with a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer for CO analysis and a chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer for NO analysis to monitor the sidestream smoke from a single port of a linear smoking machine. A cold trap was inserted prior to the FT-IR to minimize the levels of vapor phase interferents, such as water. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were evaluated for the prediction of cigarette yield from time-resolved spectral data at 1, 2, 4 and 8 cm−1 spectral resolution. Regressions were developed using three different spectral ranges including unique rotation-vibration lines, the R-branch, and the entire absorption band. As per standard methods, yields were calculated from the concentration traces generated during the smoke runs for five different cigarettes spanning the expected range of mainstream total particulate matter deliveries. The FT-IR traces for the smoke runs revealed improved temporal resolution yielding analytical information from smoke generated in between puffs. The performance between the validation methods and the FT-IR calibrations was statistically compared. In general, for the determination of CO, the FT-IR calibrations underestimated the yield measured by NDIR by less than 10%. For the NO measurement, the univariate FT-IR calibrations overestimated the NO yield measured by the CL analyzer, whereas the partial least squares (PLS) calibrations showed good agreement. PLS calibrations were developed for both analytes providing no significant difference when compared to the respective standard analytical techniques. Results for sidestream CO and NO yields for Kentucky reference cigarette 1R4F utilizing 8 cm−1 calibrations compared favorably to values reported elsewhere in the literature. Hence, calibration of the FT-IR system at 8 cm−1 spectral resolution clearly revealed the potential of this method, providing enhanced temporal resolution, simultaneous determination of several smoke components, and reduced complexity of the experimental setup in contrast to the standard techniques.
Bruce T. Thompson and Boris Mizaikoff, "Real-Time Fourier Transform-Infrared Analysis of Carbon Monoxide and Nitric Oxide in Sidestream Cigarette Smoke," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 272-278 (2006)