A theoretical approach to some factors influencing the intensity diffracted by a polycrystalline material at a definite Bragg angle has been confirmed by experimental data obtained with a High-Angle Norelco Diffractometer. The factors considered are mainly the focussing arrangement of the goniometer, which delineates the geometric shape of the volume fraction of the sample being irradiated, and the absorption of the latter. A general equation and experimental conditions, suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis when these factors have to be taken into consideration, are proposed and a new type of sample holder for obtaining more accuracy in the measurement of lattice spacings is discussed.
J. Leroux and M. Mahmud, "Influence of Goniometric Arrangement and Absorption in Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Powders by X-Ray Diffractometry," Appl. Spectrosc. 14, 131-134 (1960)