Some years ago, flame methods of spectrochemical analysis were very popular. In recent years atomic absorption in flames has been extensively applied to the analysis of both industrial and geologic materials. Now the application of electrically heated tubes for evaporation and atomization of samples promises to provide the basis for even greater sensitivity and accuracy. In the furnace, we have an inert, nonturbulent, slow moving atmosphere with a controllable uniform temperature. The gas stream in the furnace is at a lower temperature than the walls. This tends to force suspended particles to the center where they evaporate and pass on into the light beam. It also tends to minimize or eliminate memory effects and matrix effects. The operation of the furnace is described and results are given for the analysis of samples containing diverse matrix elements.
Ray Woodriff, Ronald W. Stone, and Andrew M. Held, "Electrothermal Atomization for Atomic Absorption Analysis," Appl. Spectrosc. 22, 408-411 (1968)