A carrier distillation technique is described for the analysis of trace impurities in niobium oxide. The carrier used is a 1: 1 mixture of AgCl and AgF. Separation of the carrier and sample charge along with the use of a boiler cap on the electrode cup greatly reduces the background and yet allows the impurities to be distilled into the arc within 90 sec. Sensitivity and precision data are included for 13 impurity elements.
R. D. Laib and J. D. Lykins, "Carrier Distillation Method for the Determination of Impurities in Niobium Oxide," Appl. Spectrosc. 22, 539-541 (1968)