This paper reviews several applications of new instrumentation which have been developed for the electron microprobe analyzer and the scanning electron microscope. By using signal modulation techniques and phase sensitive detection, the information from the scanning electron microscope is made more quantitative. Digital techniques applied to photomultiplier outputs allow more sensitive and quantitative measurements of cathodoluminescence intensities and secondary electron emission. The technique of pulse rate analysis is used to enhance the information contained in x-ray scanning micrographs from an electron microprobe analyzer. Several examples of these techniques are discussed.
James P. Smith and Lee R. Reid, "New Instrumental Techniques and Their Application to Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 24, 420-426 (1970)