The low temperature matrix isolation technique for producing and examining reactive or otherwise unstable species has been developed to a high degree of sophistication in the past 20 years. Often, the desired molecular fragment is generated by cocondensing a gaseous mixture, for example, CO in Ar, with a molecule or atom generated at high temperature by evaporation from a hot filament or by effusion from a Knudsen cell, for example, Pd or Pt atoms. Using this method the previously unknown carbonyls of Pd and Pt were generated and identified by matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy.
M. Moskovits and G. A. Ozin, "The Application of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Monitoring Rates of Deposition of High Temperature Species in Matrix Isolation Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 26, 481-481 (1972)
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