The relative ease of operation, power handling capabilities, and overall performance of an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer depends upon numerous factors, not the least important of which is the design of the torch. A variety of such designs has appeared in the literature. Most workers have employed three concentric fused silica and/or Pyrex tubes, referred to as an inner sample gas tube, a "flaired mouth" plasma gas tube, and an outer coolant tube. These tubes are either fused into one- or two-piece units through glass blowing techniques or mounted in some type of dismantleable base assembly.
D. L. Windsor, D. R. Heine, and M. B. Denton, "A High Power Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch and Impedance Matching Network," Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 56-58 (1979)