A family of nonlinear four-wave mixing techniques that are capable of site-selective organic spectroscopy are presented. Three lasers are used in the methods in order to achieve fully resonant mixing. Three lasers are shown to provide better sensitivity, selectivity, and versatility in the study of ground and excited electronic state vibrational spectroscopy. New approaches become possible in the establishment of resonances that translate the output signal from the normal Stokes or anti-Stokes side of the lasers to intermediate positions that are free of fluorescence interference. These new methods are divided into Multiply Enhanced Parametric Spectroscopy (MEPS) and Multiply Enhanced Nonparametric Spectroscopy (MENS), depending upon the spectroscopic characteristics for site-selective applications. The characteristics of MEPS and MENS are found to be quite different and depend upon the number and separation of the sites, the power of the lasers, the relative shifts of the levels, and the correlation effects in the inhomogeneous broadening. The feasibility of MENS and the site-selective capability of both CARS and MENS is demonstrated experimentally with the use of the pentacene: p-terphenyl system as a model.
S. H. Lee, J. K. Steehler, D. C. Nguyen, and J. C. Wright, "Site-Selective Nonlinear Four-Wave Mixing by Multiply Enhanced Nonparametric and Parametric Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 39, 243-253 (1985)