In an interlaboratory test, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was compared with flame atomic absorption spectrometry and molecular absorption spectrophotometry for the determination of 17 major and trace elements in 100 filtered natural water samples. No unacceptable biases were detected. The analysis precision of ICP-AES was found to be equal to or better than alternative methods. Known-addition recovery experiments demonstrated that the ICP-AES determinations are accurate to between ±2 and ±10 percent; four-fifths of the tests yielded average recoveries of 95-105 percent, with an average relative standard deviation of about 5 percent.
J. R. Garbarino, B. E. Jones, G. P. Stein, W. T. Belser, and H. E. Taylor, "Statistical Evaluation of an Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometric Method for Routine Water Quality Testing," Appl. Spectrosc. 39, 535-541 (1985)