A gallstone from Egypt was examined by laser Raman spectroscopy and identified to be a bilirubin-type stone. The surface of the stone, the subsurface interior, and the center of the stone were irradiated with the 514.5-nm argon-ion laser line. Spectra from the three areas gave similar Raman spectral patterns. Moreover, Raman spectra from the interior of the gallstone were identical to that of bilirubin standard. However, the examination of a Raman spectrum from the outer surface of the stone indicated that it contained cholesterol in addition to bilirubin. Bilirubin has the characteristic line of C=C stretching vibration at 1615 cm−1. Cholesterol has the characteristic line of C(5)=C(6) stretching vibration at 1674 cm−1. Cholesterol also has a strong characteristic line at 1439 cm−1. Therefore, it is quite easy to identify the constituents of gallstone by Raman spectroscopy.
Siding Zheng and Anthony T. Tu, "Raman Spectroscopic Identification of Bilirubin-Type Gallstone," Appl. Spectrosc. 40, 1099-1103 (1986)