NMR is now recognized as one of the most powerful spectroscopic tools. The four parameters usually determined in NMR are: Chemical Shifts, Coupling Constants, Spin-Lattice, and Spin-Spin Relaxation Times. Whilst the last three are easily measured in Hz or seconds, the first is subject to some difficulties since chemical shifts are a function of the applied polarizing magnetic field B<sub>0</sub>, and their measured values in frequency units are given by ν = γ/2π.B<sub>0</sub>, where γ is the gyro-magnetic ratio characteristic of a given isotope. Consequently, the experimental values are a function of each instrument, since it is impossible to build instruments with a fixed B<sub>0</sub> and with precision and stability of about 0.1 Hz at 600 MHz, the highest field used at present. Consequently the measured values cannot be compared between laboratories.
P. Granger, "Multinuclear NMR Referencing," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 1-3 (1988)
References are not available for this paper.
OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.