The emission and absorption spectra of a copper converter flame have been investigated. It was found that the emission spectra consisted of Planck radiation and superimposed discrete structures. The band structure was dominated by PbS in the slag-making stage and by PbO in the copper-making stage. Towards the end of the slag-making stage the ratio of the PbO and PbS band intensities (PbO/PbS) changed, in good agreement with thermodynamical calculations. Absorption measurements were performed during the copper-making stage, where the absorption edge of SO<sub>2</sub> at about 380 nm was the dominating feature. The implications of these measurements for process steering and control are discussed.
Wilhelm Wendt, Marcus Aldén, and Willy Persson, "Application of Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy for Characterization of a Copper Converting Process," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 128-133 (1988)