The sequences of solid-phase reactions preceding formation of atomic vapors in the pyrolytic graphite-coated furnace have been inferred from appearance temperatures, activation energies, and multiple-phase high-temperature thermodynamic calculations. Of these, only the latter provides information on the penultimate and earlier steps preceding atom formation.
J. P. Matousek and H. K. J. Powell, "Condensed-Phase Reactions of Vanadium in the Pyrolytic Graphite-Coated Furnace: Analysis by X-Ray Powder Diffraction," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 166-168 (1988)