The use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP/AES) for the analysis of samples which contain either low or high amounts of dissolved solids and/or suspended particles has become common in recent years because of the high sensitivities and multielement capability of this technique. One of the major concerns associated with ICP/AES is the reproducible introduction of the sample aerosol into the plasma. This parameter is commonly thought of as the limiting factor in the reproducibility of experimental results. Although traditional pneumatic nebulizers, such as crossflow or concentric types, can be used for samples containing low amounts of dissolved solids, such nebulizers cannot be used for samples which contain suspended particles and/or high amounts of dissolved solids, because of the possible clogging of the sample capillary. For such samples, either frit, ultrasonic, or Babington-type nebulizers are commonly employed.
Ted Cecconie, S. Muralidharan, and Henry Freiser, "Characterization of Micro-Babington and Cross-Flow Type Nebulizers for Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry," Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 177-179 (1988)
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