The results of a comparative study of the relative analytical performance of different nebulizer and spray-chamber designs with a direct-current plasma (DCP) are described. Concentric-glass, cross-flow, and Babington-type nebulizers were each evaluated with either a double-pass or an open spray-chamber geometry for the effect of each combination on the observed linear dynamic range and the magnitude of interferences arising from the presence of an easily ionizable element (sodium) and difficult-to-vaporize species (phosphate salts). The performance of each of these combinations was compared to that of the nebulizer/spray-chamber configuration provided by the manufacturer. For nearly all cases, the manufacturer's configuration provided, at worst, comparable signal intensities for all conditions investigated.
Gary D. Rayson and Vanessa M. Chrisman, "Comparison of Aerosol Sample Introduction Systems for a DCP," Appl. Spectrosc. 44, 96-100 (1990)