The multivariate calibration method of partial least-squares (PLS) was applied to the mid-infrared spectra of whole blood for quantitatively determining blood glucose concentrations. Separate calibration models were developed on the basis of spectra of whole blood obtained from six diabetic subjects from either in vitro glucose-supplemented blood or blood obtained from the same subjects in the post-prandial state during meal tolerance tests. The cross-validated PLS calibrations yielded average errors in glucose concentration of 11 and 13 mg/dL, respectively. It is desirable to use the calibration models based on the in vitro glucose-supplemented blood for determining glucose concentrations in unknown blood samples. However, when these multivariate calibration models based upon in vitro blood spectra were applied to the spectra of the post-prandial blood samples, a subject-dependent concentration bias was observed. The source of this bias was not identified, but when the glucose determinations were corrected for the bias, average concentration errors were found to be 14 mg/dL. Changes in spectrometer design or calibrations based on large numbers of subjects are expected to eliminate the presence of this bias. If these measures do not succeed in eliminating the bias, then methods are demonstrated that significantly reduce the bias while retaining the sensitive outlier detection capabilities of the PLS methods. These latter methods require that the infrared spectrum and reference glucose levels be obtained from a single blood sample from each subject.
Kenneth J. Ward, David M. Haaland, M. Ries Robinson, and R. Philip Eaton, "Post-Prandial Blood Glucose Determination by Quantitative Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 959-965 (1992)
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