A portable Raman system is described that has been developed for line-of-site spectral measurements of remotely located samples at intermediate ranges. Raman spectra were measured at distances up to 20 m with the use of a 40-mm-diameter collection optic (f/500) and at 16.7 m with a 22-mm-diameter collection optic (f/750). In all cases, low-power cw lasers were used with powers ranging from 23 to 100 mW. The system consists of a small f/4 image-corrected spectrograph with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CCD detector and has been demonstrated with both an argon-ion laser, emitting at 488 nm, and an 809-nm diode laser. Applications of the system include monitoring of organic and inorganic compounds at toxic waste sites during remediation, process monitoring, and remote detection of highly toxic materials.
S. M. Angel, Thomas J. Kulp, and Thomas M. Vess, "Remote-Raman Spectroscopy at Intermediate Ranges Using Low-Power cw Lasers," Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 1085-1091 (1992)
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