A method has been developed to determine the temperature of single microparticles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. Particle temperatures were ascertained from the measured intensities of the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra. Temperatures near ambient were obtained for titanium dioxide and calcium nitrate microparticles with the use of a Raman-based calibration of the optical system to correct for wave-length-dependent effects. Higher temperatures were also measured with the use of a carbon dioxide infrared laser to electromagnetically heat the particle. In an effort to minimize particle instabilities caused by the heating beam, the Gaussian intensity profile of the beam was modified with an axicon beam expander to produce a doughnut-like intensity distribution. The temperature measurement technique and quantitative Raman composition analysis were applied to study dehydration of a calcium nitrate tetrahydrate particle.
Scot D. Rassat and E. James Davis, "Temperature Measurement of Single Levitated Microparticles Using Stokes/Anti-Stokes Raman Intensity Ratios," Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 1498-1505 (1994)