Trace metal speciation, as a means to indicate likely sources and transportation mechanisms of elements in the environment, is of vital importance to both the analytical chemist and the toxicologist. Several workers have described methods involving the direct coupling of chromatographic columns to various atomic spectroscopic detectors. These include graphite furnace atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma emission, flame emission, and flame absorption spectrometry.
D. N. Wichems and Bradley T. Jones, "Simple Direct Coupling for a Flame Detector and an HPLC Column," Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 273-275 (1994)