Laser-produced ions were detected and analyzed remotely by a reflectron mass spectrometer for determination of the elemental composition. Detection of ions at 3.9 m from the target was accomplished. Elemental and isotopic mass spectra of aluminum, germanium, copper, silver, and complex targets such as a lunar simulant and Standard Reference Material 1834 were mass-analyzed at 1 × 10<sup>9</sup> W/cm<sup>2</sup> (0.02 wt % detection limit), giving good correlation with manufacturers' stated elemental composition and yield. Mass spectra could be obtained in a single laser pulse. The mass resolution is 62 at mass 63 and 77 at mass 28. Such a system could be extended to a remote laser mass spectrometer on a lunar rover or satellite for planetary surface mass analysis.
Wen Situ and Russell J. De Young, "Long-Distance Detection of Laser-Produced Ions by a Reflectron Mass Spectrometer," Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 791-797 (1995)