In this paper, results are presented showing the feasibility of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique as a fast and sensitive analytic tool for quantitative measurement of trace elements in water. Many ionic elements were detected; the system linearity was tested by analyzing water samples containing known concentration of Mg and Ca, whereas Cr-polluted samples were exploited to test the system sensitivity limit to impurities.
G. Arca, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli, and E. Tognoni, "Trace Element Analysis in Water by the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Technique," Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1102-1105 (1997)