Detection limits for the main heteroatoms in pollutants and chemical agents have been determined in atmospheric conditions with the use of the time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (TRELIBS) method. This method presents many advantages for detection in hazardous or corrosive gas mixtures where sampling systems are not usable. Moreover, low concentrations of fluorine, chlorine, sulfur, and carbon can be measured with short analysis times. Currently, concentration limits are close to 10-50 ppm (w/w) for F, Cl, and C atoms, while presently only 1500 ppm (w/w) limits are reached for S. These measurements are obtained with an analysis time of under 20 s.
L. Dudragne Ph. and Adam J. Amouroux, "Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Application for Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Fluorine, Chlorine, Sulfur, and Carbon in Air," Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 1321-1327 (1998)