In this paper, we report the first enhanced emission for elements in a nonmetal or nonconducting matrix, glass, with the use of a preablation spark. The glass samples used in this work are prototypes of samples used to immobilize inorganic waste at the Savannah River Site Vitrification Facility. We have found that using a pre-ablation spark results in larger signal enhancements, 11- to 20-fold for titanium, aluminum, and iron in glass compared to the metal under the same experimental conditions. We also demonstrate that this method is more sensitive than single-pulse LIBS experiments for the direct solid sampling of vitrified waste glass.
Dimitra N. Stratis, Kristine L. Eland, and S. Michael Angel, "Enhancement of Aluminum, Titanium, and Iron in Glass Using Pre-ablation Spark Dual-Pulse LIBS," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1719-1726 (2000)
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