A novel sensor based upon surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been constructed by immobilizing colloidal silver particles onto the distal end of an optical fiber. This same single fiber was then used to both transport the exciting laser radiation and collect the Raman scattering from analytes sorbed onto the colloidal particles. The colloidal particles were immobilized by functionalization of the end of the optical fiber with (3-am inopropyl)trimethoxysilane prior to immersion of the fiber in silver colloid. Spectra were obtained from both 4-(5'-azobenzotriazol)3,5-dimethoxyphenylamine and crystal violet. The within-batch variation of a set of five fibers has been measured as approximately 10%. Raman imaging experiments demonstrated that the effects due to spatial variations in the intensity of the SERS recorded over the distal end of the fiber are removed by the use of a multimode fiber. Index Headings: Fiber optic; Raman; Surface-enhanced Raman scattering; SERS; Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering; SERRS; Sensors.
Ewan Polwart, Ruth L. Keir, Christine M. Davidson, W. Ewen Smith, and Daran A. Sadler, "Novel SERS-Active Optical Fibers Prepared by the Immobilization of Silver Colloidal Particles," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 522-527 (2000)