There is currently great interest in developing the vibrational analog to two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. One approach to implementing two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy is to use doubly vibrationally enhanced (DOVE) four-wave mixing (FWM). Non-linear signals occur because of correlations and mode coupling that are induced by interactions involving the driven modes. Since cross peaks do not occur between modes if interactions are absent, spectral congestion is removed and only the coupled modes remain. We describe the development of a two-dimensional doubly vibrationally enhanced four wave mixing method that extends the doubly resonant nonlinear spectroscopies to vibrational nonlinearities. We demonstrate the selective enhancements of coupled modes that are possible with the double resonances where the intensity of the enhancements reflects the strength of the interactions that are responsible for the vibrational mode coupling. We also demonstrate the capabilities for selectively enhancing specific sample components in an isotopic mixture. Since biological applications of DOVE require aqueous environments, we have examined the ability of DOVE methods to discriminate against the strong water absorption and have found that water has a small vibrational nonlinearity that allows DOVE of the solutes. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and features required to make DOVE methods practical for a wide range of scientific applications where identification of intra- and intermolecular interactions is important.
Wei Zhao, Keith M. Murdoch, Daniel M. Besemann, Nicholas J. Condon, Kent A. Meyer, and John C. Wright, "Nonlinear Two-Dimensional Vibrational Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1000-1004 (2000)