Solid-matrix luminescence was investigated for human biomonitoring that employed room-temperature solid-matrix fluorescence (SMF) and phosphorescence (SMP) for the detection and identification of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PY), tetrol (I-1), and 9-hydroxy-phenanthrene (9-OH-Phen) in human urine fractions. However, SMF proved to be less sensitive than SMP. For SMP, the compounds were adsorbed on Whatman 1PS paper with thallium nitrate as a heavy-atom salt under neutral or basic conditions. The SMP limits of detection of 16 fmole for I-1 and 39 fmole for 1-OHPY were acquired. Because 9-OH-Phen appeared to undergo some photobleaching, only estimated limits of detection could be obtained. With the spectral characteristics of the SMP excitation and emission spectra, it was possible to identify all three compounds in spiked urine fractions. For unspiked urine fractions, I-1 and 9-OH-Phen were identified, but 1-OH-PY was not identified because of interference from the SMP of other components.
Barry W. Smith and Robert J. Hurtubise, "Solid-Matrix Luminescence of Hydroxyl Aromatic Metabolites in Urine Fractions with Whatman 1PS Paper," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1357-1361 (2000)