There is a need for an instrument that can be used for remote in situ identification of biogenic and a-biogenic minerals, various types of ices, and organic and inorganic materials on planetary surfaces. In this paper, we explore the use of remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy for mineral analysis at distances from 10 to 66 m on planetary surfaces. We have constructed a remote Raman system utilizing a small pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a 5-in. telescope coupled to a spectrograph with an optical fiber. The performance of our system is demonstrated by presenting spectra of benzene and marble (calcium carbonate) while varying the integration time (i.e., number of laser shots), as well as single laser shot spectra of marble while decreasing laser power. Finally, Raman spectra of representatives of several different mineral groups are presented, including hydrated substances, carbonates, silicates (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, feldspars, etc.), water, and ice.
Shiv K. Sharma, S. Michael Angel, Manash Ghosh, Hugh W. Hubble, and Paul G. Lucey, "Remote Pulsed Laser Raman Spectroscopy System for Mineral Analysis on Planetary Surfaces to 66 Meters," Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 699-705 (2002)
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