A liquid/liquid optical waveguide was constructed using a sheath flow. Since the refractive index of an organic solvent is generally higher than that of water (nD = 1.33), light introduced into the inner organic flow should proceed with total multi-reflection within the inner flow, so that the inner part of the sheath flow acts as the core of an optical waveguide. This sheath flow liquid/liquid optical waveguide was stable and showed no substantial background scattering. Moreover, it is applicable to both miscible and immiscible liquid/liquid interfaces. Thus, it may become a new tool for studying liquid/liquid interfaces as well as for sensitive optical measurements.
Hiromi Takiguchi, Tamao Odake, Manabu Ozaki, Tomonari Umemura, and Kin-Ichi Tsunoda, "Liquid/Liquid Optical Waveguides Using Sheath Flow as a New Tool for Liquid/Liquid Interfacial Measurements," Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 1039-1041 (2003)