<b>Elemental analyses of kohl (stone) samples collected from three different parts of the world were performed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The analyses indicated that lead (Pb), copper (Cu), silver (Ag), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), and sodium (Na) were present in all the kohl samples. In addition to these elements, the sample from Madina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), contained the elements tin (Sn), zirconium (Zr), and antimony (Sb). The sample from Mount Toor, Egypt, also contained Sn. Also, quantitative analysis for lead was carried out by the standard addition method using the LIBS technique. The result showed the presence of 14.12 ± 0.28% by weight of Pb in the sample from Madina, which compares well with the measurement done using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) (13.31 ± 0.46%). The standard addition method used three calibration curves drawn for three emission lines of the LIBS spectra of Pb. The limits of detection (LoD) for these calibration curves varied from 0.27% to 1.16% by weight. The lead contents of the samples from Mount Toor and the local market of Bangladesh were also measured by the AAS technique, and the results were 14.61 ± 0.48% and 8.98 ± 0.35% by weight, respectively. The reason for determining only the lead content in kohl, which may be used as an eye cosmetic, is the adverse effect that lead has on health.</b>
Abul Fazal Mohammed Yusuf Haider, Rebeka Sultana Lubna, and Kazi Monowar Abedin, "Elemental Analyses and Determination of Lead Content in Kohl (Stone) by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 66, 420-425 (2012)
References are not available for this paper.
OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.