Raman cross-sections of explosives in solution and in the solid state have been measured using visible and near-infrared excitation via secondary calibration. These measurements are valuable for both fundamental scientific purposes and applications in the standoff detection of explosives. The explosive compounds RDX, HMX, TNT, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and ammonium nitrate were measured using discrete excitation wavelengths ranging from 532 nm to 785 nm. A comparison of the spectral features and cross-sections between the solid state and solution was performed. Comparison is also made to cross-sections measured with deep ultraviolet excitation.
ERIK D. EMMONS, JASON A. GUICHETEAU, AUGUSTUS W FOUNTAIN, and STEVEN D. CHRISTESEN, "Comparison of Visible and Near-Infrared Raman Cross-Sections of Explosives in Solution and in the Solid State," Appl. Spectrosc. 66, 636-643 (2012)