Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was employed to directly analyze coal particles in the form of descending flow. Coal-particle ablation was performed using a 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd : YAG) laser at atmospheric conditions. Spectral identification schemes were used to acquire spectra containing all the emission lines of the important elements in coal. These acquired spectra were classified as representative spectra. The background of the line emission plus three times the standard deviation of the background of the representative spectra was chosen as the threshold value. A method using a single line and a method using combined multiple lines (C, 247.8 nm; N, 746.8 nm; Si, 288.2 nm; and Ca, 396.8 nm) were compared to obtain the best results for the spectral identification of coal particle flow. The feasibility of rejecting the partial breakdown spectra was verified using quantitative analysis of fixed carbon in coal.
Jianping Zheng, Jidong Lu, Bo Zhang, Meirong Dong, Shunchun Yao, Weiye Lu, and Xuan Dong, "Experimental Study of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Direct Analysis of Coal Particle Flow," Appl. Spectrosc. 68, 672-679 (2014)