OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1101–1109

Refractive errors and corrections for OCT images in an inflated lung phantom

Ali Golabchi, J. Faust, F. N. Golabchi, D. H. Brooks, A. Gouldstone, and C. A. DiMarzio  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 3, Issue 5, pp. 1101-1109 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (975 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Visualization and correct assessment of alveolar volume via intact lung imaging is important to study and assess respiratory mechanics. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a real-time imaging technique based on near-infrared interferometry, can image several layers of distal alveoli in intact, ex vivo lung tissue. However optical effects associated with heterogeneity of lung tissue, including the refraction caused by air-tissue interfaces along alveoli and duct walls, and changes in speed of light as it travels through the tissue, result in inaccurate measurement of alveolar volume. Experimentally such errors have been difficult to analyze because of lack of ’ground truth,’ as the lung has a unique microstructure of liquid-coated thin walls surrounding relatively large airspaces, which is difficult to model with cellular foams. In addition, both lung and foams contain airspaces of highly irregular shape, further complicating quantitative measurement of optical artifacts and correction. To address this we have adapted the Bragg-Nye bubble raft, a crystalline two-dimensional arrangement of elements similar in geometry to alveoli (up to several hundred μm in diameter with thin walls) as an inflated lung phantom in order to understand, analyze and correct these errors. By applying exact optical ray tracing on OCT images of the bubble raft, the errors are predicted and corrected. The results are validated by imaging the bubble raft with OCT from one edge and with a charged coupled device (CCD) camera in transillumination from top, providing ground truth for the OCT.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(080.0080) Geometric optics : Geometric optics
(080.2710) Geometric optics : Inhomogeneous optical media
(100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
(170.5380) Medical optics and biotechnology : Physiology

ToC Category:
Optical Coherence Tomography

Original Manuscript: February 27, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 16, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 17, 2012
Published: April 25, 2012

Ali Golabchi, J. Faust, F. N. Golabchi, D. H. Brooks, A. Gouldstone, and C. A. DiMarzio, "Refractive errors and corrections for OCT images in an inflated lung phantom," Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1101-1109 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. I. A. Greaves, J. Hildebrandt, and F. G Hoppin, “Micromechanics of the lung,” Comprehensive Physiol.2011, 217–231 (2011).
  2. K.F. Udobi, E. Childs, and K. Touijer, “Acute respiratory distress syndrome,” Am. Family Physician, 67, 315–322 (2003).
  3. D. Dreyfuss and G. Saumon, “Ventilator-induced lung injury: lessons from experimental studies,” Respir. Crit. Care Med.157, 294–323 (1998).
  4. D. E. O’Donnell, S. M. Revill, and K. A. Webb, “Dynamic hyperinflation and exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med165(5), 770–777 (2001).
  5. D. Carney, J. DiRocco, and G. Nieman, “Dynamic alveolar mechanics and ventilator-induced lung injury,” Crit. Care Med.33, S122–S128 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Sarnaik, K. Daphtary, K. Meert, M. Lieh-Lai, and S. Heidemann, “Pressure-controlled ventilation in children with severe status asthmaticus,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med.5(2), 133–138 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Bashkatov, E. Genina, and V. Tuchin, “Tissue optical properties,” in Handbook of Biomedical Optics (CRC Press, 2011), pp. 67–100. [CrossRef]
  8. W. C. Warger, C. A. DiMarzio, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Confocal microscopy,” in Handbook of Biomedical Optics (CRC Press, 2011), pp. 517–542.
  9. H. Choi, J. Cha, and P. So, “Nonlinear optical microscopy for biology and medicine,” in in Handbook of Biomedical Optics (CRC Press, 2011), pp. 561–588. [CrossRef]
  10. F. E. Ben-Isaac and D. H. Simmons, “Flexible fiberoptic pleuroscopy: pleural and lung biopsy,” CHEST67(5), 573–576. [PubMed]
  11. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254, 1178–1181 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Popp, M. Wendel, L. Knels, T. Koch, and E. Koch, “Imaging of the three-dimensional alveolar structure and the alveolar mechanics of a ventilated and perfused isolated rabbit lung with Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.11, 014015 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Meissner, L. Knels, A. Krueger, T. Koch, and E. Koch, “Simultaneous three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and intravital microscopy for imaging subpleural pulmonary alveoli in isolated rabbit lungs,” Eu. Respir. J.14, 054020 (2009).
  14. N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thoracic Cardiovascular Surg.129, 615–622 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Gouldstone, N. Caner, T. B. Swedish, S. M. Kalkhoran, and C. A. Dimarzio, “Mechanical and optical dynamic model of lung,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.58, 3012–3015 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. R. Silva, H. T. Shen, A. Marzban, and A. Gouldstone, “Instrumented indentation of lung reveals significant short term alteration in mechanical behavior with 100 percent oxygen,” Healthcare Eng.1, 415–434 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. M. R. Silva, Z. Yuan, J. H. Kim, Z. Wang, M. Hoyos, Y. Pan, and A. Gouldstone, “Spherical indentation of lungs: experiments, modeling and sub-surface imaging,” J. Mater. Res.24, 1156–1166 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Meissner, L. Knels, C. Schnabel, T. Koch, and E. Koch, “Improved three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by index matching in alveolar structures,” J. Biomed. Opt.14, 064037 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Chen, Y. C. Yortsos, and W. R. Rossen, “Pore-network study of the mechanisms of foam generation in porous media,” X. Phys. Rev. E73, 036304 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. A. van der Net, G. W. Delaney, W. Drenckhan, D. Weaire, and S. HutzlerColloids, “Crystalline arrangements of microbubbles in monodisperse foams,” Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects309(1–3), 117–124 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. L. Bragg and J. F. Nye, “A dynamical model of a crystal structure,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A190, 474–481 (1947), [CrossRef]
  22. F. N. Golabchi, D. H. Brooks, A. Gouldstone, and C. A Dimarzio, “Refractive effects on optical measurement of alveolar volume: a 2-D ray tracing approach,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, (IEEE, 2011), pp. 7771–7774.
  23. D. C. Reed and C. A. DiMarzio, “Computational model of OCT in lung tissue,” Proc. SPIE7570, 75700I (2010). [CrossRef]
  24. T. B. Swedish, J. P. Robinson, M. R. Silva, A. Gouldstone, D. Kaeli, and C. A. DiMarzio, “Computational model of optical scattering by elsatin in lung,” Proc. SPIE7004, 79040H (2011), [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited