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Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1647–1661

Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils

Yusufu N. Sulai and Alfredo Dubra  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 3, Issue 7, pp. 1647-1661 (2012)

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Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.4460) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmic optics and devices
(220.1230) Optical design and fabrication : Apodization
(110.1080) Imaging systems : Active or adaptive optics

ToC Category:
Ophthalmology Applications

Original Manuscript: March 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 25, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: June 1, 2012
Published: June 20, 2012

Yusufu N. Sulai and Alfredo Dubra, "Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils," Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 1647-1661 (2012)

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