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Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2013
  • pp: 967–977

Direct visualization of changes of lymphatic function and drainage pathways in lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma using near-infrared fluorescence imaging

Sunkuk Kwon, Germaine D. Agollah, Grace Wu, Wenyaw Chan, and Eva M. Sevick-Muraca  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 4, Issue 6, pp. 967-977 (2013)

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The lymphatic system provides an initial route for cancer cell dissemination in many cancers including melanoma. However, it is largely unknown how the lymphatic system changes during tumor progression due in part to the lack of imaging techniques currently available. In this study, we non-invasively imaged changes of lymphatic function and drainage patterns using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. Dynamic NIRF imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) was conducted in C57BL/6 mice prior to inoculation of B16F10 murine melanoma cells to the dorsal aspect of the left hindpaw for baseline data or directly to the popliteal lymph node (PLN) and until 21 days post-implantation (p.i.). A series of acquired fluorescent images were quantified to measure lymphatic contractile function. Computed tomography (CT) was also performed to measure the volume of tumor-draining lymph nodes (LNs). We observed significant reduction of lymphatic contractility from 7 days p.i. until 21 days p.i.. Altered lymphatic drainage patterns were also detected at 21 days p.i. in mice with tumor in the paw and at 11 days p.i. in mice with tumor in the PLN, due to lymphatic obstruction of normal lymphatic drainages caused by extensive tumor invasion of draining LNs. Since lymphatic function and architecture were progressively altered during tumor growth and metastasis, non-invasive NIRF imaging may provide a new method to stage disease. In addition, this novel technique can be used as a diagnostic method to non-invasively assess lymphatic response as mechanism of therapeutic action.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.4580) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical diagnostics for medicine
(170.2655) Medical optics and biotechnology : Functional monitoring and imaging

ToC Category:
Optics in Cancer Research

Original Manuscript: April 24, 2013
Revised Manuscript: May 28, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 28, 2013
Published: May 30, 2013

Sunkuk Kwon, Germaine D. Agollah, Grace Wu, Wenyaw Chan, and Eva M. Sevick-Muraca, "Direct visualization of changes of lymphatic function and drainage pathways in lymph node metastasis of B16F10 melanoma using near-infrared fluorescence imaging," Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 967-977 (2013)

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