OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2014
  • pp: 645–652

Optical axial scanning in confocal microscopy using an electrically tunable lens

Joey M. Jabbour, Bilal H. Malik, Cory Olsovsky, Rodrigo Cuenca, Shuna Cheng, Javier A. Jo, Yi-Shing Lisa Cheng, John M. Wright, and Kristen C. Maitland  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 645-652 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1699 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



This paper presents the use and characterization of an electrically focus tunable lens to perform axial scanning in a confocal microscope. Lateral and axial resolution are characterized over a >250 µm axial scan range. Confocal microscopy using optical axial scanning is demonstrated in epithelial tissue and compared to traditional stage scanning. By enabling rapid axial scanning, minimizing motion artifacts, and reducing mechanical complexity, this technique has potential to enhance in vivo three-dimensional imaging in confocal endomicroscopy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.0110) Medical optics and biotechnology : Imaging systems
(170.1790) Medical optics and biotechnology : Confocal microscopy
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.6900) Medical optics and biotechnology : Three-dimensional microscopy

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: November 25, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 28, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 28, 2014
Published: January 30, 2014

Joey M. Jabbour, Bilal H. Malik, Cory Olsovsky, Rodrigo Cuenca, Shuna Cheng, Javier A. Jo, Yi-Shing Lisa Cheng, John M. Wright, and Kristen C. Maitland, "Optical axial scanning in confocal microscopy using an electrically tunable lens," Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 645-652 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. M. Jabbour, M. A. Saldua, J. N. Bixler, and K. C. Maitland, “Confocal endomicroscopy: instrumentation and medical applications,” Ann. Biomed. Eng.40(2), 378–397 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Jabbour, S. Cheng, B. H. Malik, R. Cuenca, J. A. Jo, J. Wright, Y. S. Cheng, and K. C. Maitland, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging and reflectance confocal microscopy for multiscale imaging of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(4), 046012 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. A. Tanbakuchi, A. R. Rouse, J. A. Udovich, K. D. Hatch, and A. F. Gmitro, “Clinical confocal microlaparoscope for real-time in vivo optical biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(4), 044030 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.49(10), 1168–1172 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Olsovsky, R. Shelton, O. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. E. Applegate, and K. C. Maitland, “Chromatic confocal microscopy for multi-depth imaging of epithelial tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(5), 732–740 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. M. Lane, R. P. Elliott, and C. E. MacAulay, “Confocal microendoscopy with chromatic sectioning,” Proc. SPIE4959, 23–26 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. A. J. Thompson, C. Paterson, M. A. Neil, C. Dunsby, and P. M. French, “Adaptive phase compensation for ultracompact laser scanning endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1707–1709 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett.32(14), 2007–2009 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Kumar, D. Wilding, M. B. Sikkel, A. R. Lyon, K. T. MacLeod, and C. Dunsby, “High-speed 2D and 3D fluorescence microscopy of cardiac myocytes,” Opt. Express19(15), 13839–13847 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q. Wu, S. Guo, Y. Ma, F. Gao, C. Yang, M. Yang, X. Yu, X. Zhang, R. A. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Optical refocusing three-dimensional wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy,” Opt. Express20(2), 960–965 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Yang, A. Mac Raighne, E. M. McCabe, L. A. Dunbar, and T. Scharf, “Confocal microscopy using variable-focal-length microlenses and an optical fiber bundle,” Appl. Opt.44(28), 5928–5936 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. F. Grewe, F. F. Voigt, M. van ’t Hoff, and F. Helmchen, “Fast two-layer two-photon imaging of neuronal cell populations using an electrically tunable lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(7), 2035–2046 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Optotune Application Note, “Optical focusing in microscopy with Optotune’s focus tunable lens EL-10-30”, (Optotune, 2013), http://www.optotune.com/images/products/Optotune application note EL-10-30 for microscopy.pdf .
  14. K.-S. Lee, P. Vanderwall, and J. P. Rolland, “Two-photon microscopy with dynamic focusing objective using a liquid lens,” Proc. SPIE7569, 756923 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. F. O. Fahrbach, F. F. Voigt, B. Schmid, F. Helmchen, and J. Huisken, “Rapid 3D light-sheet microscopy with a tunable lens,” Opt. Express21(18), 21010–21026 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. S. Chen and Y. H. Lin, “An endoscopic system adopting a liquid crystal lens with an electrically tunable depth-of-field,” Opt. Express21(15), 18079–18088 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. Savidis, G. Peyman, N. Peyghambarian, and J. Schwiegerling, “Nonmechanical zoom system through pressure-controlled tunable fluidic lenses,” Appl. Opt.52(12), 2858–2865 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. G. Ouzounov, D. R. Rivera, W. W. Webb, J. Bentley, and C. Xu, “Miniature varifocal objective lens for endomicroscopy,” Opt. Lett.38(16), 3103–3106 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: AVI (459 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1450 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (5572 KB)     

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited