OSA's Digital Library

Biomedical Optics Express

Biomedical Optics Express

  • Editor: Joseph A. Izatt
  • Vol. 5, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 2014
  • pp: 2376–2389

Multiplexed coded illumination for Fourier Ptychography with an LED array microscope

Lei Tian, Xiao Li, Kannan Ramchandran, and Laura Waller  »View Author Affiliations

Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 5, Issue 7, pp. 2376-2389 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2140 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Fourier Ptychography is a new computational microscopy technique that achieves gigapixel images with both wide field of view and high resolution in both phase and amplitude. The hardware setup involves a simple replacement of the microscope’s illumination unit with a programmable LED array, allowing one to flexibly pattern illumination angles without any moving parts. In previous work, a series of low-resolution images was taken by sequentially turning on each single LED in the array, and the data were then combined to recover a bandwidth much higher than the one allowed by the original imaging system. Here, we demonstrate a multiplexed illumination strategy in which multiple randomly selected LEDs are turned on for each image. Since each LED corresponds to a different area of Fourier space, the total number of images can be significantly reduced, without sacrificing image quality. We demonstrate this method experimentally in a modified commercial microscope. Compared to sequential scanning, our multiplexed strategy achieves similar results with approximately an order of magnitude reduction in both acquisition time and data capture requirements.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
(170.0180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Microscopy
(170.1630) Medical optics and biotechnology : Coded aperture imaging
(110.1758) Imaging systems : Computational imaging
(110.3010) Imaging systems : Image reconstruction techniques

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: May 9, 2014
Revised Manuscript: June 12, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: June 13, 2014
Published: June 19, 2014

Lei Tian, Xiao Li, Kannan Ramchandran, and Laura Waller, "Multiplexed coded illumination for Fourier Ptychography with an LED array microscope," Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2376-2389 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. Zheng, C. Kolner, and C. Yang, “Microscopy refocusing and dark-field imaging by using a simple LED array,” Opt. Lett.36, 3987–3989 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier Ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics7, 739–745 (2013). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Tian, J. Wang, and L. Waller, “3D differential phase-contrast microscopy with computational illumination using an LED array,” Opt. Lett.39, 1326–1329 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Hamilton and C. Sheppard, “Differential phase contrast in scanning optical microscopy,” J. Microscopy133, 27–39 (1984). [CrossRef]
  5. T. N. Ford, K. K. Chu, and J. Mertz, “Phase-gradient microscopy in thick tissue with oblique back-illumination,” Nature Methods9, 1195–1197 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Levoy, Z. Zhang, and I. McDowall, “Recording and controlling the 4D light field in a microscope using microlens arrays,” J. Microscopy235, 144–162 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Waller, G. Situ, and J. Fleischer, “Phase-space measurement and coherence synthesis of optical beams,” Nat. Photonics6, 474–479 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. X. Ou, G. Zheng, and C. Yang, “Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Express22, 4960–4972 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Pantanowitz, “Digital images and the future of digital pathology,” J. Pathology Informatics1, 15 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. X. Ou, R. Horstmeyer, C. Yang, and G. Zheng, “Quantitative phase imaging via fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.38, 4845–4848 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 168102 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “High-resolution, wide-field object reconstruction with synthetic aperturefourier holographic optical microscopy,” Opt. Express17, 7873–7892 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt.21, 2758–2769 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 4795–4797 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach,” Opt. Express16, 7264–7278 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109, 1256–1262 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy109, 338–343 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy108, 481–487 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Y. Schechner, S. K. Nayar, and P. N. Belhumeur, “Multiplexing for optimal lighting,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence29, 1339–1354 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. N. Ratner and Y. Y. Schechner, “Illumination multiplexing within fundamental limits,” in “Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition” (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–8.
  21. R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, “Phase determination for image and diffraction plane pictures in the electron microscope,” Optik34, 275–284 (1971).
  22. C. Rydberg, J. Bengtsson, and , “Numerical algorithm for the retrieval of spatial coherence properties of partially coherent beams from transverse intensity measurements,” Opt. Express15, 13613–13623 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature494, 68–71 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Dominguez, L. Molina, D. B. Desai, T. O’Loughlin, A. A. Bernussi, and L. G. de Peralta, “Hemispherical digital optical condensers with no lenses, mirrors, or moving parts,” Opt. Express22, 6948–6957 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Tian, J. Lee, S. B. Oh, and G. Barbastathis, “Experimental compressive phase space tomography,” Opt. Express20, 8296–8308 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Shechtman, A. Beck, and Y. Eldar, “GESPAR: Efficient phase retrieval of sparse signals,” IEEE Trans. Sig. Processing62, 928–938 (2014). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited